Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Neighbourhood Management & Renewal (Housing Studies) Essay

Neighbourhood Management & Renewal (Housing Studies) - Essay Example This is not merely about deprivation or the worrying proliferation of slums that need to be taken care of by the government, but this is about solving the causes of urban tangling that affect not just the ordinary citizens but all aspects of Liverpool and Manchester in general. The social reforms that took place in Britain will be discussed in depth, especially the extensive, lengthy discussions on deprivation, the chief role of the local governments of Liverpool and Manchester and the housing authorities and organizations in altering and improving the living conditions in the ground. Furthermore, this paper addresses environmental concerns and social conflicts within neighbourhoods as a way to include a more thorough understanding of social marginalization, sustainable development, and the importance of care of urban locations. While analyses and discussions on this paper are focused on Liverpool and Manchester, or the UK in general, a considerable number of issues are consequential to other countries. Liverpool and Manchester are situated in the North-western part of England. They are about 35 miles away from each other. These cities are particularly important for UK in that these are founding and ground-breaking cities, exemplifying the advent of the industrial era. During the early 1900s, particularly in the 1930s, the sum of the population of both cities only accounted to below 900,000 people, and population for each city has significantly reduced by fifty per cent caused by deindustrialization that led to a cascade of unremitting decline. Liverpool and Manchester had to fight and, to a degree, triumphed in getting rid of the image of decline and deterioration. Following an era of urban renewal in the 1990s, Liverpool and Manchester both relish a new perception of confidence and optimism. Notwithstanding these resemblances and comparison, the connection between the

Monday, October 28, 2019

Learning & Cognitive theories Essay Example for Free

Learning Cognitive theories Essay Learning in my life is an ongoing process; one that carries on as I come across various situations, every single one of them increasing my learning experience. It is rightly said that learning starts the day one is born and continues till one’s death bed. So in this respect there have been various stimuli that have repeatedly crossed my life. I have made several associations with different kinds of objects or situations for that matter which I have remembered and used to make various inferences. Who does not remember the jingles of the ice cream man, stimulating and beckoning the kids to crave for ice cream and inquire for money from the parents? Out of the many situations, one that has truly left an indelible impression on my mind is a childhood recollection of the horrific car accident that I went through with my family. Although I came out unscathed from the accident as did my family who just suffered minor injuries, the very thought of screeches of a car just triggers a whole array of thoughts and nightmares of my accident ordeal. It was a fine day with no unusual surroundings or conditions of the highway. Our car was also going at a steady pace maintaining the speed limits. The car was functioning well with every smallest detail of the car scrutinized by my father, a perfectionist at work. But as it happened that the heavy truck two cars in front of ours carrying logs of wood, its lock that fastened the logs broke free from its bolt which sent the logs tumbling down. This is what I last remembered out of my flashbulb memory, besides the incessant screeches and the wails of the people struck by this horrific incident. It is from that moment onwards that I shudder at the slightest screech of a car so much so that I cannot even stand my friends drifting their modified cars, much to their surprise and disgust. Such a fear that I have developed is largely due to that horrific incident that I went through. This has set a feeling or a sensation at the back of my mind about staying away from fast cars on the roads. I can attribute my fear to the concept of classical conditioning wherein an unconditioned stimulus (screech of a car) has turned into a conditioned stimulus. That conditioned stimulus sets off a conditioned response (fear of an accident). The concept of classical conditioning says exactly that learning is associated with a person responding to a neutral stimulus which normally does not bring about that response. So more often that not whenever I come across and hear a screech I relate it with a fear that somebody will have an accident. If I had not experienced that accident, such a screech of a car would not have meant anything abnormal or out of the ordinary. Such a behavior of mine can also be explained by the concept operant conditioning where a person learns a voluntary response and the extent of it is strengthened or weakened depending on its positive or negative consequences. In my accident scenario, the accident is a negative consequence which I associate with a screech of a car. So the screech or a high speed develops the fear and reinforces it as well. Such reinforcement may happen if somebody in my family also has an accident on a highway or I myself get into an accident. The reinforcement has also stemmed from media which has also done a sufficient bit to sustain my fear of car accidents. One can usually see in the car chases in the movies where the bad guys being chased by the cops or police in their cars get into accidents and get busted. There are several other instances where certain programs reinforce my fear of speeding and screeching cars like the reality car shows. They show cars getting into horrific and deadly accidents as the drivers over speed their vehicles. There is another approach to learning which is called cognitive social learning. One such learning is latent learning. In this type of learning a new behavior does not get registered properly though it is acquired till one receives reinforcement encouraging one to adopt or develop a behavior. But in my accident scenario, I can largely put it down to classical conditioning. This is where I have started making associations with certain stimuli which in turn leads to the development of fear. Reference ATHERTON J S (2005) Learning and Teaching: Cognitive theories of learning http://www. learningandteaching. info/learning/cognitive. htm Accessed: 2 February 2009 Frietas, S Neumann, T. (2009). The use of exploratory learning for supporting immersive learning in virtual environments. Computers Education Moriyama, J Kato, Y. (2009) Self-efficacy and learning experience of information education: in case of junior high school. AI Society

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Mothers Smoke Less around Their Children after Counseling :: Essays Papers

Mothers Smoke Less around Their Children after Counseling In Melbourne F. Hovell’s article: â€Å"Effect of Counseling Mothers on their Children’s Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Randomized Controlled Trial,† the author persuades the reader effectively through showing evidence about the dangers of second hand smoke. He also introduces the effectiveness that counseling has on mothers who smoke in front of their children. The article presents a study of the effectiveness of counseling for smoking mothers, and shows the decline of children's exposure to smoke in their environment. The article states many valid points, and backs the evidence with statistics to insure that the reader is persuaded by the article’s points. The article begins by introducing the problem of second hand smoke to children, and has a delayed thesis which states his main point about the effectiveness of therapy. The author then explains the methods and who participates. Many statements backed up with evidence co ntinue throughout the article. The article also shares individual stories of mothers who have gone through this type of therapy and how it has helped them. Hovell’s article was believable because it included statistics as well as success stories. His research is also believable because he displays it with credibility and logic, and he appeals to the reader’s values. There are numerous reasons as to why smoking should be banned around small children, specifically in the United States. Hovell addresses these reasons with statistics. The World Health Organization estimated that half of the world’s children are in danger due to second hand tobacco smoke (1). In the United States, 43% or about 15 million children live in homes polluted with tobacco (1). This is a higher percentage compared to other countries across the globe. Many of these children will suffer from asthma, repertory tract infections, otitis media, and sudden infant death syndrome (for fetuses whose mother’s smoke) because of their exposure. The article states that counseling tends to decrease children’s exposure and mother’s smoking while increasing the number of quitters (1). The study done for this article involved recruiting of certain mothers and families who would undergo the counseling process.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Child Development Study Essay -- physical emotional social development

Child Development Study For my child development study I am going to observe how a child shows their physical, emotional, social and intellectual development and skills. I will observe this child over a year and record their improvement of these skills. Physical Description I went to the child’s house on the 20th of February a 13:00pm, I was there for about 2 and a half hours. Her name Is Hilary and she is 3 years, 3 months and 3 weeks and 2 days. She was born on the 20th of November 2001. Hilary is 3ft 4 inches (101cm) and weighs 2 stone and 3lbs (31 lbs). The average height and weight of a 3 year old is 94cm and 31 lbs, Hilary is a normal size child because she weighs 3 lbs and is only 6cm taller than the average height. Her face is round and she has chubby cheeks. Light brown freckles dot around her face and around her nose. She has dark brown almond shaped eyes and a small button nose. Hilary has a mixed race complexion and dark brown hair tied back into twists to keep it out of her face. All of her primary teeth have grown, her first tooth was her top front incisor, and her last was her back molar just before her third birthday. Hilary has big feet, she is a small size 4 and has many different shoes. Her fingers are long and she has wide palms. Personality Hilary is a very friendly and out going child, when I went into her house for the first time she came up and sat beside me and showed me her ‘Noddy’ book. By doing this it showed that she isn’t really timid or shy of new/unfamiliar people. I asked Hilary what she was scared or frightened of and she told me she was scared of the dark and lions. When she said lions she squatted her legs and shouted raahhhh very loudly. Hilary was very liv... ... a pincer grasp when drawing and colours neatly with in the lines. For my second activity I done a drawing with Hilary, she had fine muscular control when she was drawing a lady bird. I helped her to write her name. My third activity was play dough, Hilary was not very keen on playing with the play dough at first because she didn’t like the feel of it. But when I started to roll the play dough Hilary joined in, she was able to roll the play dough in to little balls but wasn’t able to make the food out of the play dough. However I don’t think she understood what to do. We went into the garden and were picking up leaves ready to do my fourth activity, Hilary used her fine motor skills to pick up the leaves. My fifth activity was an obstacle course in Hilary’s front room, Hilary enjoyed this activity. She was able to climb, jump and crawl over the obstacles.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Environmental Science Essay

Environment is one of the most discussed topics in the international community and is one of the many concerns of political leaders today. Due to this, different environmental issues have arisen such as the climate change, sustainable development, and air pollution. Climate change is the most popular and most discussed issue in the international community today. According to the European Commission, â€Å"climate change is one of the greatest environmental, social, and economic threats facing the planet† (European Commission, 2008). I have learned that climate change is the altering of the temperature of the earth. It is something that we all experience not only in one region of the world but also in different parts of the globe, as depicted in the images that the media are presenting to us. The issue on climate change and other environmental concerns caused the United Nations to form a policy as a countermeasure. Thus, the term sustainable development emerged. In a report of World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) in 1987 entitled â€Å"Our Common Future,† sustainable development is referred to as a â€Å"development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs† (cited in Bankobesa, 2005). The statement caught my interest because it captured the essence of why our environment must be taken care of. The thought of having the future generation suffer due to the actions and decisions of the present generation does not reflect a very beautiful image in my mind. Maintaining the environment is an obligation for the present generation because of the necessities of the future. Air pollution is another issue that I am very much concerned about. There are outdoor and indoor pollutions, such as black carbon pollutions and noxious gases which could affect the environment and inflict serious health problems to people when inhaled, such as irritation of the nose, eyes and throat, bronchitis, pneumonia, lung cancer, and heart disease just to name a few (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, n. d. ). These issues which have grabbed my attention and concern are all too big a problem to be solved by one person only. As the International Education and Resource Network (iEARN) (2008) put it, we have â€Å"One world, One environment. † Hence, these environmental which affect the whole world can only be addressed when each and every one of us will cooperate with each other. However, everyone must be aware first of the problems of the environment. This is the reason why several promotional campaigns and awareness programs, such as the ads made by Hollywood celebrities, have emerged to encourage the Americans and the rest of the world to fight against their advocacies. By making them more aware of these environmental issues, individuals would be able to do their part in protecting the environment and saving it from disintegration. To increase the amount of help they can give, I suggest that they join organizations that combat environmental issues. I learned that environmental science cannot be separated from the lives of human beings. Although some people may not notice it, environmental science is part of our daily lives and is highly evident. Although some of the effects of these environmental issues are rooted from the changes in nature itself, most of them are provoked by human activities such as smoke belching, illegal logging, improper dumping of waste, and many more. Thus, while we perform the activities that could harm our environment, we are also the ones who can alter the consequences that gave rise to these environmental issues. Therefore, working together towards addressing these problems would only be solved through cooperation and unity. References Bankobesa, G. M. (2005). Ozone Protection: The International Legal Regime. The Netherlands: AJ Utrecht. European Commission. (2008, May 05). Environment: Climate Change. Retrieved May 05, 2008 from http://ec. europa. eu/environment/climat/home_en. htm International Education and Resource Network (iEARN). (n. d. ). One world, one environment. Retrieved May 05, 2008, from https://media. iearn. org/node/205 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. (2008, May 05). Indoor & outdoor air pollution. ELSI Project. Retrieved May 05, 2008, from http://www. lbl. gov/Education/ELSI/pollution-main. html

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Free Essays on The Wife Of Bath Tale

The Wife of Bath’s Reflexive Contradiction for Sexual Equality in the Canterbury Tales The Wife of Bath has been described and depicted as an independent proto-feminist who long ago led the charge for sexual equality. Chaucer’s visionary protagonist was a refreshing and modern look at women’s rights in the fifteenth century. She spends much of her prologue breaking down stereotypical barriers that have confined women of her time to passive and subservient roles in her society. As a result, her prologue, if standing alone, can be noted as one of the great calls for female independence in historical literature. But upon viewing her works as a whole, her section of the General Prologue, her prologue and her tale, it is well noted that she strikingly contradicts her own call for equality with her story of the knight and the hag. She builds her case so strongly and defiantly in her prologue, yet subsequently demolishes her argument in her following tale. By allowing the hag to compromise her position, rewarding the knight for his chauvinist deeds and co untering her own stance with several questionable details, the Wife of Bath contradicts her position for sexual equality and retards the momentum she had built in her preceding works. After the hag has put the knight in a position where she could take advantage and follow the Wife of Bath’s principles, she not only passes up on the chance to treach the knight a lesson, but actually entreats his disturbing persona. To procure their first encounter the hag (and this can be rightly assumed by her mysterious and later magical nature) attracts the knight the only way he could be lured. She supernaturally displays twenty-four dancing women to which, â€Å"he drew ful yerne. (999)† This quick advancement upon the women by the knight can be derived as the hag controlling him by taking advantage of his carnal desires, already displayed by his Neanderthalic raping of the maiden in th... Free Essays on The Wife Of Bath Tale Free Essays on The Wife Of Bath Tale The Wife of Bath’s Reflexive Contradiction for Sexual Equality in the Canterbury Tales The Wife of Bath has been described and depicted as an independent proto-feminist who long ago led the charge for sexual equality. Chaucer’s visionary protagonist was a refreshing and modern look at women’s rights in the fifteenth century. She spends much of her prologue breaking down stereotypical barriers that have confined women of her time to passive and subservient roles in her society. As a result, her prologue, if standing alone, can be noted as one of the great calls for female independence in historical literature. But upon viewing her works as a whole, her section of the General Prologue, her prologue and her tale, it is well noted that she strikingly contradicts her own call for equality with her story of the knight and the hag. She builds her case so strongly and defiantly in her prologue, yet subsequently demolishes her argument in her following tale. By allowing the hag to compromise her position, rewarding the knight for his chauvinist deeds and co untering her own stance with several questionable details, the Wife of Bath contradicts her position for sexual equality and retards the momentum she had built in her preceding works. After the hag has put the knight in a position where she could take advantage and follow the Wife of Bath’s principles, she not only passes up on the chance to treach the knight a lesson, but actually entreats his disturbing persona. To procure their first encounter the hag (and this can be rightly assumed by her mysterious and later magical nature) attracts the knight the only way he could be lured. She supernaturally displays twenty-four dancing women to which, â€Å"he drew ful yerne. (999)† This quick advancement upon the women by the knight can be derived as the hag controlling him by taking advantage of his carnal desires, already displayed by his Neanderthalic raping of the maiden in th...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Psych critique Essay

Psych critique Essay Psych critique Essay Kelsey Heavner Psyc 2301 – Section #04 Fall 2013 How Capital Punishment Benefits Towards Our Societies Is capital punishment a harm to society, or is it a benefit? If I were to ask a group of people if they are for or against the death penalty sentence, I would most likely get strong assertive opinions on why or why not they believe in such a serious consequence. Some consider the death penalty inhumane, almost like the topic of abortion, many are against it, but to me, it is nothing like that. The death penalty, also known as capital punishment, is the legal process where a person is put to death by the state. The practice of execution by a society has been occurring since the late 1600’s. In 1622, in a Virginian Colony there was a small town village man, Daniell Frank, who was hanged for such a little crime as stealing a baby calf from a neighbor friend. As we know, it takes much more than just the robbery of a baby calf to be sentenced with the death penalty. Executions have declined as well, from a high of 98 in 1999, to just 37 in 2008; there were 46 executions in 2010, and 43 executions in 2011 and 2012. As we can tell that as time ticks, capital punishment is slowly decreasing. In Texas, the average costs of the process is $2.3 million, this is about three times the cost imprisoning someone in a single cell at the highest security level for 40 years, so as we can tell the death penalty process is not cheap. In the eighth amendment it says â€Å"Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted,† this is where it gets difficult. When people oppose of the eight amendment the only part that stands out is no cruel or unusual punishments. But what people don’t understand is that there is no pain when you are given capital punishment. To some, the death penalty is a symbol of justice, and it is a relief towards our safety concerns by establishing closure. Most states use a 3-drug combination for lethal injections: an anesthetic, either pentobarbital or, formerly, sodium thiopental (which is used to put to sleep), after a member of the team determines the inmate is sufficiently unconscious, he/she is then injected with pancuronium bromide, which paralyzes the entire muscle system and stops the inmate's breathing. In most cases, the inmate's consciousness is again checked, and finally potassium chloride stops his heart. In ideal circumstances, death results from anesthetic overdose and respiratory and cardiac arrest while the condemned person is unconscious. In today’s society, we can conclude that the laws and regulations have been changed towards determining if one’s life is worth the death penalty or just a life time sentence to be incarceration. Crimes that usually result in the death penalty are capital offences. Such as criminal actions as first degree murder, first-degree kidnapping with bodily injury, treason, larceny, I could tell you a lot more but the list goes on and on†¦ Some believe that the men and woman that violate these actions should be reliable for the

Sunday, October 20, 2019

10 Success Lessons from Successful People

10 Success Lessons from Successful People We all have a different definition of success. Some people define success by having a loyal family and children. But most of the world would identify it as achieving power and wealth. Here are some tips from successful people, you can use in college, future career and personal life. If You Want to Learn Something – Just Do It. â€Å"The best way of learning about anything is by doing.† Richard Branson Richard Branson is a very successful English businessman, whos inspiring a lot of young people to start their own business and stop being afraid of doing something new! Richard can give us valuable advice – you cant learn about anything without actually doing it. You can read a lot of books on how to ride a bike, but unless you start riding it, you wont be able to know how to do it well. Develop Yourself â€Å"If I really want to improve my situation, I can work on the one thing over which I have control myself.† Stephen R. Covey How can people control others without knowing how to control themselves? If you want to be successful and improve some things around you – start with yourself. Every person should improve themselves before trying to influence the others. Very often it becomes the hardest thing to do. Everybody can see mistakes in others, but when it comes to yourself – its hard to notice anything wrong. Be Persistent I have not failed. Ive just found 10,000 ways that wont work. - Thomas A. Edison Thomas Edison is one of the most successful American inventors. If his new invention didnt work right away, Edison started trying so many times, until it worked. Simple as that. You shouldnt give up as soon as something doesnt go your way. Edisons key to success is to be persistent and confident. Eventually, youll be able to achieve great results. Many people give up without understanding that next try could be successful. Love What You Do â€Å"The only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you haven’t found it yet, keep looking. Don’t settle. As with all matters of the heart, you’ll know when you find it. † Steve Jobs Many people settle on their lousy jobs and work until retirement. It is not necessary! Everyone has a thing they love to do. It can be programming, singing or writing, it doesnt really matter. Your work will be truly successful only if youre passionate about it. Start chasing your dreams, try different jobs. If youre young, you have a lot of possibilities to choose from. Steve Jobs doesnt want you to settle until youre sure its what you want to do! Work Hard â€Å"There are no secrets to success. It is the result of preparation, hard work, and learning from failure.† – Colin Powell Colin Powell is right. You may think there are some secrets to success you dont know. Or that you have to be talented in one area to achieve wonderful results. To be honest, it is result from very hard work and learning from failure. It is important to learn from mistakes to not let them happen again. Before you start doing something, you need to prepare, research and work as long as it takes. Dont Procrastinate â€Å"Procrastination is one of the most common and deadliest of diseases and its toll on success and happiness is heavy.† Wayne Gretzky No more â€Å"Ill start on Monday/tomorrow/next month/year† words! Its now or never. We all know what it is to be a procrastinator. You just cant do anything, you want deadline extension, even if it takes less than an hour to do something. Stop looking for excuses! Successful people dont procrastinate. This is their key to success. Be Passionate Stop chasing the money and start chasing the passion. Tony Hsieh Weve all heard about Zappos – a company with the happiest employees. Tony Hsieh realized that he didnt have to chase the money. He should find his passion and go for it! If you manage to find that passion, youll see it can bring money as well. Tony used to spend days, not even hours at work, because he loved it! If youre not ready to devote most of your time and energy on your work, maybe its not for you. Choose Wisely â€Å"It is our choices, that show what we truly are, far more than our abilities.† J. K Rowling You may have some great abilities and talents. But the most important thing is what you do with those abilities. You need to make a lot of choices in your career and they define who you really are. So make sure they are the right ones. Dont let others influence your choices and stay true to your principles. Revenge Your Enemies by Being Successful The best revenge is massive success. Frank Sinatra Be ready to hear a lot of meaningless critics. But listen to Sinatras words – the best revenge is to show all these people how successful you are. There is no need to worry about someones mean words. All you should do is forget about the bullies and show the world youre better than them. Stay Focused The successful warrior is the average man, with laser-like focus.† – Bruce Lee Bruce Lee was a wise man, who thought it was important to stay focused all the time. You should think only about things, which matter and ignore all the distractions. There are some long-term goals you should think about, so be focused on them. Decide whats important to you and motivate yourself to reach all your goals. You wont find some extraordinary secrets to success. The most important part is to work hard, believe in your dream, be persistent and dont listen to meaningless critics. Be confident and dont let others stop you. And always practice! Even the most talented people had to spend hours every day to become great. So get rid of procrastination and enjoy improving your skills! Any success tips you would like to share? Dont be shy! Go to the comments below!

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Too Far From Home 'Modulitis' and NGOs' Role in Transferring Essay

Too Far From Home 'Modulitis' and NGOs' Role in Transferring Prepackaged Reform - Essay Example There are further limitations which affect the operations of NGOs and GROs worldwide. These organizations are fundamentally community-oriented and politically active which depicts their obligation towards the society. However, critics say that with due course of time, the organizations have been immensely influenced by institutionalization, modernization and also corruption. With an in depth perspective, it can be argued that NGOs and GROs in the modern context are highly affected by both the micro and macro economic factors. As explained by Edward and Hulme, the operations of NGOs are strictly concerned with the macro-level changes in the socio-demographic characters. Their explanation in "Too Close for Comfort" also examines the dependency level of states on the NGOs rather than the interdependency between the two. Considering the various limitations of the study in terms of era and subject materials, the proposed theory by Edward and Hulme certainly requires to be prolonged in the modern phenomenon regarding the operations of NGOs. Bibliography Steiner-Khamsi, G. â€Å"Too Far From Home? 'Modulitis' and NGOs’ Role in Transferring Prepackaged Reform†. Current Issues in Comparative Education. Volume 1.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Strategic Human Resource Management Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Strategic Human Resource Management - Case Study Example The major political concern that Excellence University is facing is the issue of clamping of the education visa by the involved agency. This has reduced the number of foreign students in the university. In terms of economic issues, the economic downturn has affected the enrolment rates and hence impacting on the remuneration packages for the university staff (Millmore, 2007). Among the social issues affecting the university is the lack of approval of some of the course in the university by the press. The operation of the university has also been affected by its failure to embrace technology in its various aspects leading to complaints from both the staff and the students. When it comes to legal matter the issue of UK Border Agency clamping the education visas of the students from foreign nations is also affecting the operation of the university. Despite the challenges being experienced, the university still has some strength in terms of the human resources. One of the strengths is the emphasis on quality and the open door policy that has allowed for and encouraged open communication. The weaknesses of the university in terms of human resources include poor management, poor secession plans, lack of customer support, low job satisfaction among the employees and out dated remuneration packages. The major opportunity that the business has is incorporating technology in its human resource operations to have the ability to react to some of the challenges that it is facing. Some of the major threats that it faces are the withdrawal of its licences, strives and stoppages due to the union issues, competition and withdrawal of foreign students. Some of the key influences that are impacting on the business now include poor management, outdated employee remuneration packages, failure to incorporate technology and competition. These four key factors

ENERGY WEDGES Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

ENERGY WEDGES - Lab Report Example Lastly shifting to bio fuels seems as an easy way of reducing carbon emission The world yearns to reduce carbon emission especially after Kyoto protocol and Copen Hagan reports were released. Environmentalists and human rights activists are putting pressure on countries that are producing high carbon energy on the environment to reduce or pay heavy fines with the aim of reducing carbon emission for sustainable development. Our energy wedge is based on conservation of green resources and use of renewable sources of energy as a means of conservation. Nuclear wedges comes in second as a means of preventing of cutting carbon emission by half by the year 2055. Nuclear energy is capable of producing a lot of energy but is not widely used since it possesses high risks to the environment. The above two wedges are good ways of producing energy without production of carbon. (Wardlaw, 2009). A growth rate of 5.3% annually is projected in production of low carbon environmental goods and services (Nesta, 2009). There has also been tremendous increase in green jobs from 13 70 billion dollars from now to 2740 billion dollars by 2020, which is projected as a growth rate of 5.5% annually (Office, 2009). Due to the involvement of new technology while shifting from fossil energy sources to renewable sources of energy, it is expected that job creation will rise from 24% annually to 42% by 2020 (UNEP, 2007). The demand for low carbon activities is exceptionally high. The next wedge of conservation is efficiently producing electricity. Use of coal as a source of energy leads to production of about a fifth of worlds carbon. Conserving forests ensures that trees absorb carbon emitted and use it as a source of food production. Soil is also another form in which carbon products can be stored. This can be supported by planting cover crops and preventing soil erosion. Use of biofuels is believed to be cost

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Earth Science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Earth Science - Essay Example Moreover, an analysis of current strategies as well as alternative energy dependence will also be discussed. It is hope of this author that through an analysis of these different mechanisms, the reader will be more fully able to integrate an understanding and appreciation for the fragile environment that humans currently exist within. Firstly, it should be understood by the reader/researcher that many natural processes that take place within the current system have a contributing effect upon the mass of CO2 that is released into the air atmosphere; thereby directly contributing to the greenhouse effect that impacts the planet as a whole. Recent research into this topic has indicated that processes such as volcanic eruptions or even the methane gas released by the Earth’s bovine population have an even greater impact upon overall CO2 levels than all human activity within any given year. However, this should not be seen to delegitimize the processes whereby humans can provide ad ditional negative impacts upon the global environment. Due to the fact that the Earth is ultimately a closed system, it can only integrate a certain amount of change before negative impacts are seen. As such the Earth’s ecological system might be able to integrate with volcanic eruptions or the methane gas produced by cows; however, further integration of the ever-increasing levels of human CO2 emissions is likely well beyond the capabilities of the system as a whole. Although human CO2 emissions have commonly been viewed within the context of emissions from internal combustion engines, the fact of the matter is that industrialized nations as well as power generation from a variety of sources, rainforest instruction, and a litany of other activities contribute to the overall levels of CO2 that are produced within any given year. Due to the fact that the earth’s population has continued to increase at an exponential rate of growth over the past centuries, it is only rea sonable to assume that the impacts of technological advancements as well as further urbanization and construction play a prominent role in the overall level and extent to which humans affect the environment. Whereas the preceding analysis has focused solely upon whether or not, and to what extent, humans’ impact upon the global environment is, the proceeding section will seek to place a level of focus upon some of the strategies and means by which humans can seek to wean themselves from fossil fuel dependence and become more reliant upon alternative energy. Whereas few individuals promote industrialization as a means of promoting the global environment, the most rational and reasonable strategy is to seek to find alternative means to continue the technological and industrialization advancements while at the same time promoting the environment. One of the most powerful mechanisms to accomplish such an end is by focusing upon the means of energy production that humans so readil y consume. Some of the most effective means of accomplishing this are by integrating a further reliance upon solar, nuclear, wind and other alternative means of energy production. Although the â€Å"dirty† forms of energy generation provide for the current needs of the system, they have a massively negative impact upon the environment.

Construction law - standard form contracts Essay

Construction law - standard form contracts - Essay Example Comparison is made in the context of provisions such as Design Changes, Delays and Disputes, Payments, and Dispute Resolution. The first version of the National Engineering Contract came into being in 1991 under the name New Engineering Contract and was used for a number of projects, particularly in South Africa (Smith 1999, p.250). The contract was different in many respects from other similar contracts and therefore it was criticized by many in the initial periods of its inception. With its new version came into force as NEC3, its popularity has widenened. Established in 1931, Joint Contracts Tribunal (JCT) has much experience and resources in the field of construction industry. Its resources include standard forms of contracts, standard documentation, and other guidance notes. JCT was incorporated as a company limited by guarantee in 1998. Thereafter, it has been the responsibility of the company to look after the JCT Council and producing suites of contract documents for the use of construction industry (Mulcahy 2008, p. 165). Under this contract, the contractor is obliged to design the works of the project in conformity to the project information supplied by the employer (Clause 21, p.7). The contractor is also responsible to ensure that that the project design is accepted by the Project Manager. Sometimes, the project manager may not accept the design in case the design is not prepared in accordance with the work information and / or relevant legislation. The contractor needs to commence the works once the consent from the project manager as to the acceptance of work design is received. One of the provisions of this contact grants authority to the employer, to use the design so prepared for purposes in connection with construction, use, alteration or demolition of the project work. In case, it is not allowed, it will be separately stated in the contract. It is also notable that the project manager is given the authority to accept or reject the design after a careful scrutiny of the same. Joint Contract Tribunal 2005 As per the provision of JCT 2005, the preparation of the work design is the responsibility of the contractor like that of NEC3. The provisions of this contract stipulate that the contractor is required to prepare and submit the project design before the administrator/architect appointed by the employer. It also states that the design should be prepared in such a way that it meets all the requirements as mentioned in the Employer's work requirement. Once the design is prepared, the same is handed over to the architect for scrutiny. The architect, within 14 days of acceptance, should give the design back to the contractor after putting his comment on one copy of the original design. Three comment grades are usually used under this contract, namely A, B, and C. The mark 'A' signifies that the contract can commence the work as per the work requirements with the same design and no change is needed. The mark 'B' implies the design need not be changed, but works have to be carried out as pe r the comments put forward

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Earth Science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Earth Science - Essay Example Moreover, an analysis of current strategies as well as alternative energy dependence will also be discussed. It is hope of this author that through an analysis of these different mechanisms, the reader will be more fully able to integrate an understanding and appreciation for the fragile environment that humans currently exist within. Firstly, it should be understood by the reader/researcher that many natural processes that take place within the current system have a contributing effect upon the mass of CO2 that is released into the air atmosphere; thereby directly contributing to the greenhouse effect that impacts the planet as a whole. Recent research into this topic has indicated that processes such as volcanic eruptions or even the methane gas released by the Earth’s bovine population have an even greater impact upon overall CO2 levels than all human activity within any given year. However, this should not be seen to delegitimize the processes whereby humans can provide ad ditional negative impacts upon the global environment. Due to the fact that the Earth is ultimately a closed system, it can only integrate a certain amount of change before negative impacts are seen. As such the Earth’s ecological system might be able to integrate with volcanic eruptions or the methane gas produced by cows; however, further integration of the ever-increasing levels of human CO2 emissions is likely well beyond the capabilities of the system as a whole. Although human CO2 emissions have commonly been viewed within the context of emissions from internal combustion engines, the fact of the matter is that industrialized nations as well as power generation from a variety of sources, rainforest instruction, and a litany of other activities contribute to the overall levels of CO2 that are produced within any given year. Due to the fact that the earth’s population has continued to increase at an exponential rate of growth over the past centuries, it is only rea sonable to assume that the impacts of technological advancements as well as further urbanization and construction play a prominent role in the overall level and extent to which humans affect the environment. Whereas the preceding analysis has focused solely upon whether or not, and to what extent, humans’ impact upon the global environment is, the proceeding section will seek to place a level of focus upon some of the strategies and means by which humans can seek to wean themselves from fossil fuel dependence and become more reliant upon alternative energy. Whereas few individuals promote industrialization as a means of promoting the global environment, the most rational and reasonable strategy is to seek to find alternative means to continue the technological and industrialization advancements while at the same time promoting the environment. One of the most powerful mechanisms to accomplish such an end is by focusing upon the means of energy production that humans so readil y consume. Some of the most effective means of accomplishing this are by integrating a further reliance upon solar, nuclear, wind and other alternative means of energy production. Although the â€Å"dirty† forms of energy generation provide for the current needs of the system, they have a massively negative impact upon the environment.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

E-commerce Multiple Techniques Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

E-commerce Multiple Techniques - Essay Example The company sells merchandize through catalogs, its website, and close to 300 Lands End Shops at Sears and Inlet Stores. Thus, the retailer provides three convenient ways to shop; by phone, digitally and in person. Lands’ End has developed unique web sites that use local language and currency to service customers in Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, Sweden, France and Austria. For its Canadian clients, the company has specifically set up a website www.landsend.canada. Customers of Lands’ End have every reason to feel comfortable and confident about their purchases because the company adheres to a set of core values and business practices that are in the best interest of all stakeholders including customers and vendors. The company believes in the philosophy that what is best for its customers is also best for the company. This philosophy is ingrained in the minds of each of its employees across departments. It is for this reason that customer’s of Lands’ End get the privilege of unparalleled customer service. The company has set up a toll free, round the clock helpline (800.800.5800) where customers can call and order a product as well as get a resolution to any query that they may have. The helpline is accessible round the year and the competent customer service staff, which receives 70-80 hours of induction training at the time of being hired by the company, resolves every customer complaint. The company also strives to respond with a personal message within 4 hours to every e-mail that it receives. Should any customer need it, Lands’ End supplies swatches of fabrics free of charge. In the event of a customer losing an item, say a glove or a mitten, purchased from the Lands’ End, the company replaces the in-stock styles for half the pair price and ships it free of cost, much to the delight of the customer. Customers have the option to return items purchased from Lands’ End at any time either for a full refund of the purchase price or

The Indian Caste System Essay Example for Free

The Indian Caste System Essay The Indian word for caste is jati, which means a large kin-community or descent-group. The word caste comes from the Portuguese casta (breed or race). The Sanskrit word applied to these groupings is varna, which means several things but is often interpreted to signify color. In a verse from the first millennium epic, the Mahabharata, Brigu, the sage explains: The brahmans are fair, the ksatriyas are reddish, the vaisyas yellow and the sudras are black (Huttton). In this essay I look at how the caste system existed in ancient India and how it currently exists in modern India. I will also try and explain how the caste system has evolved from its ancient ways and how it currently functions in modern India: for example, what sort of role it plays in Indias politics and in government policies. I will also give my personal opinion on the Indian caste system. Of the many cultures that flourished in India the literary records of the Indo-Aryan culture are not only the earliest but contain the first mention of the components of the ancient Indian caste. The Indo-Aryan, when they entered India, considered themselves more advanced and more developed than the native aborigines of India. When they (Aryans) came they had mainly three well-defined classes amongst themselves, intermarriage between which must have been rather rare, though not forbidden. These three classes to a great extent worked and functioned the way the caste system functioned but the differences between the three classes was not all that rigidly marked. (Bashm). When the Aryans entered India their first task was to exclude the sudras, a class largely composed of the aborigines, from their (Aryan) religious worship. The lowest caste of the Indian society represented the sudras at that time. The sudras were not allowed to practice religious worship that was developed by the Aryans and they were not allowed to be present in the sacrificial halls of worship. The sudras were further divided into two groups pure or not-excluded (aniravasita) and excluded (niravasita). The latter were quite outside the pale of the Hindu society, and were virtually indistinguishable from the body of the people later to be known as the untouchables. According to the brahman cal textbooks the chief duty of the pure sudra was to wait on the other three classes. He was to eat the  remnants of his masters food, wear his cast-off clothing, and use his old furniture (Bashm). Below the sudras was a group of people called the untouchables. Sometimes they were called the fifth class (pancama), but most historians rejected this term, since they believed that this class of people were so low that they were excluded from the Aryan social order altogether. The untouchables were also known as the candala. According to the ancient Indian law the Candals were to be dressed in the garments of the corpse they had cremated (candals cremated the dead), should eat their food from broken vessels, and should wear only iron ornaments (Bashm). The other three classes at that time were that of the brahmans, ksatriya and the vaisya. There was a sharp distinction between the higher three classes and the sudras. The former were twice born (dvija), once at their natural birth and again at their initiation, when they were invested with the sacred thread and received into the Aryan society (Bashm). This distinction was made on the basis of their varna, or skin color. This type of distinction became even more rigid after the fairer Aryans came into contact with the darker aborigines of India. The brahman was a great divinity in human form. His spiritual power was such that he could destroy the king and his army, if they attempted to infringe on his rights. In law he claimed great privileges, and in every respect he demanded precedence, honor and worship. Often the brahman lived under the patronage of a king, and was provided for by grants of tax-free land, farmed by peasants, who would pay their taxes to the brahman instead of to the king. They performed all the religious sacrifices for the kings and other higher classes for which they were paid and given gifts. No other caste besides the Brahmans could perform religious sacrifices. The brahmans were also considered to be the people between the gods and the mortals. At all times the brahmans supposedly led a truly religious life praying to god and learning the scriptures (Bashm). The second class was the ruling one, the members of which were in the Vedic  period called rajana, and later ksatriya. The theoretical duty of the ksatriya was protection, which included fighting in war and governing in peace. In earlier times he often claimed precedence over the brahman. The kings were considered to be ksatriyas and they could check the power of the Brahman, as the brahmans were supposed to check the power of the ksatriya (Bashm). The third class was that of the vaisya, or the mercantile class, though entitled to the services of the priesthood and to the sacred thread of initiation, but this class was poorer than the brahmans and the ksatriya. The vaisya was sometimes also symbolized as the downtrodden cultivator or a petty merchant who was interested in nothing else but his profit. To understand the functioning of the Indian caste system effectively and simply it will be best if we divide the features of the Hindu society into six major groups: Division in society and how the various castes functioned Castes were groups with well developed lives of their own, and individuals membership to his or her own caste was determined by his birth in that particular caste. The status of a person depended not on his wealth but on the traditional importance of the caste that he had the luck of being born into. Each of the castes was supposed to perform a set of activities and follow a set of rules. Often the set of activities and rules that were assigned to different castes were very different from one another. Each caste had its own panchayat or a governing body. Some of the offences that it dealt with, were : (a) eating, or drinking; (b) seduction of or adultery with a married women; (c) refusal to fulfill the promise of marriage; (d) refusing to send a wife to her husband when old enough; (e) non-payments of debts; (f) petty assaults; (g) insulting a brahman; (h) defying customs. The panchayat was also responsible for sentencing punishments. They also looked after the well being of the individuals of their own caste. Thus, each caste was in a way its own ruler. Hence the members of a caste ceased to be members of the community as a whole. The citizens owned moral allegiance to their caste first, rather than to the community as a whole Dennis, Hutton). Hierarchy As I have earlier mentioned in my paper before hierarchy was a major part of the ancient Indian society. The brahmans were certainly at the top of this hierarchical order followed by the ksatriya, the vaisya and then the sudras. This system of hierarchy was common almost all over India except for a few areas in the south where the artisan caste maintained a struggle for a higher place in the social order and disputed the supremacy of the brahmans (Dennis). Restrictions of Feeding and Social Intercourse There were numerous rules as to what sort of food and drink could be accepted by a person and from what caste. All food was divided into two classes: Kachcha and Pakka. The former was any food in the cooking of which water had been used; and the latter was food cooked in ghi or oil without the addition of water. As a rule, a man would never eat Kachcha food unless it was prepared by a fellow caste man, who in actual practice meant a member of his own endogamous group, or else prepared by his brahmin guru. But a brahmin could accept Kachcha food at the hands of no other caste. As for the Pakka food, a brahmin might take it from the hands of some other castes only. A man of higher caste would not accept Kachcha food from one of the lower. The idea of impurity or pollution was also a very important concept in ancient Indian society. A member of the upper cast could become impure just by the shadow of an untouchable or by his approaching within a certain distance of that member of the upper caste. No Hindu of decent caste would touch a chamar or a dom both of whom were members of the untouchable class. The members of a higher class often restricted the untouchables from using the same wells or the same rivers as theirs since they (untouchables) might pollute the water in the well or the river stream if they accidentally touched it with their hands. In certain areas the untouchables were not allowed to come out of their houses during dawn because their bodies cast too long shadows, which might defile a member of a higher class if it fell on him (Hutton, Dennis). Civil and Religious disabilities and Privileges of the different sections   Different areas in India had different ways of distinguishing between people of different classes. In north India impure castes were segregated and made to live on the outskirts of villages. In some parts of east India the lower castes were given some parts of the cities where they were allowed to live. In other parts of southern India the lower castes were given certain streets on which they could live and they were forbidden to enter certain streets because member of the higher classes lived on those. For example a paraiyan (a caste which came under the shudras) would not be allowed to enter a land or a village that was owned by a brahmin and even a Brahmin would not be allowed to pass through their street. If he happened to enter he would be greeted with cow-dung and water. Also, some of the lower castes were made to drag thorny branches with them to wipe out their footprints and lie at a distance prostrate on the ground if a brahmin passed by, so that the foul shadow might not defile the holy brahmin. Even the schools that were maintained at public cost were practically closed to such impure castes as the chamars and mahars (both of which belonged to the untouchables). The shanars and the izhavas were not allowed to build two story houses because their height might cast a shadow on other houses, bringing bad luck. Under some emperors there were distinctions made between the punishments that were given to a brahmin and a member of the lower caste. The brahmin enjoyed certain privileges that were not enjoyed by any other caste. For example a brahmin could accept gifts and food from a clean sudra. No caste could employ any other priests than the brahmins to perform sacrifices any other religious ceremonies. A brahmin never bowed before any one else, but required others to salute him. A brahmin only could promote a person to a higher caste. A brahmin was considered so important in some kingdoms that he was given special protection by the king (Hutton, Dennis, Bashm). Lack Of Choice of Occupation Generally a caste or a group considered some activities as their hereditary occupation which they thought were right for them and suited their status. Thus a brahmin thought that it was right for him to be a priest and a chamar thought that it was right for him to prepare shoes. This was also true of other occupations such as trading, laboring in  the fields and military service. Also, no caste let a member from the other caste take up their work. Preaching was especially reserved for the brahmins. A person who not brahmin born could not preach and would not be allowed to become a priest. The effect of these rules was that the priestly profession was entirely monopolized by the brahmins, leaving aside the people from the other classes (Hutton). Restrictions on Marriage Most of the groups, whose features I have attempted to characterize had a number of sub-groups, every one of which forbade its members to marry persons from outside their own caste. Each of these groups, popularly known as sub-castes, is thus endogamous. In some parts of India, however, the endogamy system was not that strict and a man from a higher caste was allowed to marry a girl from a lower caste. Except for some exceptional cases like the one mentioned above, inter-caste marriage was extremely limited and each group was expected to marry within their own caste or community. However, if this rule was ever broken, then expulsion from the membership of the group was generally the penalty, which the offending parties had to suffer. Generally expulsion from ones own community was a very major thing since he would not get admission into a higher caste and would have to become a member of a lower caste (Hutton, Dennis). After much discussion about the caste system in ancient India, I feel that I will not do justice to the topic unless I look at its influence in modern India. In the following I will talk about how the caste system works in modern India and how it affects the politics and the policies of modern India. I will conclude by giving my personal opinion on the caste system. The caste system in modern India has been deeply influenced by the mobility that was brought under the British rule; the movement to the cities for higher education and for employment. Lower castes were promoted by certain grants and concessions. The caste system became much less rigid during this time, and the artificial barriers that were set by the brahmans between various castes fell. In addition, all the non-Hindus like the Jains, Christians and Muslims were treated equally. Even the ideas of pollution and  untouchability specially weakened in the cities; even the villages experienced a certain amount of liberalization (Srinivas). However, all this change has been accompanied by a large involvement of caste in administration and policies. Election candidates stand from their castes rather than their respective political parties and get elected on the basis of their caste. Numerically, large castes have become important pressure groups in politics at the District and the State levels. For example a candidate from Maharashtra cannot hope to win elections if he does not allot special deals and packages to the marathas, brahmins, and the mahars (all of these castes are the numerically dominant caste in Maharashtra). The same is true for a candidate standing from Gujrat who will have to promote the interests of the banias, patidars and the kolis; and a candidate from Bihar who would have to promote the bhumihar, kayasth and the rajputs (Srinivas). Modern rural India has been divided into villages and each village has a village leader, who normally is fairly rich and is from a high caste. These village leaders play a very important role in the politics of modern India. Political leaders who stand for elections from their area normally need the help of the village leaders to get the votes of the people of that village and to win elections. In return these village heads can ask the political leaders for loans and grants for their village, which are normally not distributed evenly among the people of that village. Since the village leaders often belong to higher classes, they give most of these loans and grants to the people of the higher class and the people from the lower class get very little of this share. Thus, this results in the higher classes becoming richer and the lower classes becoming poorer. Even the political leaders do not bother to improve their condition till they keep getting their votes and keep winning the elec tions (Srinivas). I will divide my conclusion into two parts. In my first conclusion I will judge the caste system according to all the knowledge I have gained from reading books of various foreign scholars. For my second conclusion, I will talk about the caste system based on my experience and cultural insights. In my first conclusion, I would describe the Indian caste system as a necessary  evil. While it was essential to keep the different parts of the Indian society interconnected and together, I think the way it was followed and implemented was wrong. Every stable and developing society has a hierarchy system with a group of people at the top, some in the middle and then some at the bottom. However, I do not believe it correct for the lowest group to be ill treated and abused, as in the case of the sudras and the untouchables. I believe this where the Indian caste system went wrong. For my second conclusion I would like to propose an argument. We really do not have a lot of information on the caste system to make a judgment about it. Most of the information that we have so far is from 19th century colonialist historians who saw only its surface rigidities and made sweeping generalizations, (condemnatory for the most part), based on too little knowledge and even less experience. They probably did not see this sort of division, as parallel to anything they had in Europe so they could have misunderstood the whole concept altogether. Therefore I dont exactly know what to say about the caste system based on their readings, since we really do not have a lot of information on the caste system to be judgmental about it. Could it be possible that the ancient Indians were not really racists and as I have mentioned did not divide society on the basis of their color. Could it be that they divided their people on the basis of their profession and deeds? The truth of the matter probably lays in the fact that varna, like a lot of Sanskrit words, changed its meaning according to the context it is used in and can denote form, quality, class, category, race, merit or virtue. Whatever be the reality the truth is that the caste system is probably not as apparent in modern India as apparent as it was in the ancient India but I think that the influence that it is now having on Indias politics is disturbing.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Eco Hotel Business Plan

Eco Hotel Business Plan Business Plan ECO-REST Non-Profit Hotel Executive Summary The current hospitality and tourism market finds itself under threat, almost as a direct result of the heightened awareness of the impact that is being Imposed by the relatively new phenomenon that is know as climate change. The market: As an industry the hotel and hospitality sectors have an abundance of establishments, particularly in the Greater Miami areas. In essence it could therefore be argued that there is no need for yet another hotel. The answer to this viewpoint is that the proposed ECO-REST hotel project has two distinctive and unique features and benefits that provide it with a potentially new business model that, to a large extent, will enable the hotel to create its own niche marketplace. Further, the diversification into the non-profit arena, with the objective of feeding excess income out to support community based environmentally positive projects, does show that the non-profit hotel organisation can bring about change in an effective manner and one that involves every member of the local community. Customers: Research has shown that the business and leisure traveller are becoming more discerning; In particular this reveals itself in the concerns that are being expressed relating to business response to climate change. The overwhelming majority of consumers now believe that it is the duty of the hotel operator to encompass the improvement and changes needed to combat global warming and they are prepared to pay a premium to those establishment that can prove they have adopted eco-friendly systems and structures within their operational procedures and methods of trading. With 80% of travellers being of in favour of this position it is clear that there is a need for the hospitality organisations to adapt their objectives to a set of rules that takes into account the demands of the consumer and face the environmental issue. Alternatively, they face the risk of the loss of competitive advantage and market share, neither of which options would be received positively by shareholders who are the m ajor investors in the hotel sector. Hotel features: The features that are being included within the design and build of ECO-REST are intended to include all the latest technology and design that is being used and recommended as a template for reducing the impact that hotels have upon the environment. These include energy saving systems, methods by which the maximum benefit is gained from the use of daylight; solar and wind-power and the recycling of all basic discarded and waster material. The green features also extend beyond the needs of the building to address environmentally friendly systems in the garden and grounds belonging to the business. In fact the whole ethos of the business is to approach every aspect of the business operation of the basis of â€Å"how green can it be.† Research has shown that this approach not only provides a competitive advantage when seeking to increase market share but also has a positive affect upon the profitability of the business as well. Operating principles ECO-REST has a philosophy that is specifically designed based on giving back to the customer, which is the reason why it was decided that this project should be styled as a non profit making charitable organisation. This allows the business to have the extra flexibility to be able to donate to organisations of its choice that will be of positive use to the community and its environment. The Future There is little doubt that as the warning relating to climate change becomes more vocal people are going to become more strident in their demands for the traditional systems of commerce. It will not be acceptable in the future to react with cosmetic measures designed to appease. In the future consumers will want to proof of improvements. Hotels such as ECO-REST are examples of structures and establishments that contain that proof. Therefore there is little doubt that the opportunity exists to be able to take this business model and replicate it, not only in other areas of the US but also to the international community. Contents (Jump to) Executive Summary 1. Introduction 2 Target market opportunity 2.1 Tourism 2.2 Business Eco-travel 2.3 The hospitality and tourism market in Florida 3 Marketing 3.1 Tourist and corporate travel operators 3.2 Advertising and promotion 3.3 Strategic alliances 4 Competitors 4.1 Five forces analysis 5 Corporate strategy 5.1 Start up strategy 5.2 Operating principles 5.3 Operational programme 6 Management and governance structure 7 Financials 1. Introduction It is extremely rare to find a hotel establishment within the commercial market that operates on a non-profit making basis, with all excess revenue earned during the year being used for charitable purposes rather than to enhance shareholder/owner value. Similarly, few hotels have taken full advantage of all the green and eco-friendly and sustainable measures that are available to this sector of the hospitality industry. The ECO-REST hotel project is designed to fit within both of these criteria. ECO-REST Hotel, an establishment that will have 120 rooms and be based in Greater Miami, Florida, will make full use of all currently available environmentally friendly practices and partner with environmental organisations to donate all profits to help fund local green and sustainable projects. This report contains the proposed business plan for ECO-REST Hotel and will outline the research that has been conducted into the market, its competitors, the anticipated financial performance and req uirements for the project. 2. Target market opportunity Research has shown there is an increasing demand from tourists and business travellers for hotel establishments that took the incorporation of environmentally measures within their establishments seriously and were prepared to pay a premium for accommodation that fulfilled these requirements. 2.1. Tourism Although there are various forms of tourism[1] in the context of the ECO-REST project the concentration will be focused upon Ecotourism and sustainable tourism. In these two areas there are significant indicators that these forms are the future growth sectors of the industry, as can be evidenced from the following: From the beginning of the last decade it has been estimated that ecotourism has been growing at an annual rate of between 20% and 34%[2] Eco and sustainable tourism numbers in 2004 was outpacing the overall tourism industry growth by three times[3] Produces economic benefit for the local community, in terms of increased employment 62% of Americans consider it important to learn about other cultures when they travel[4] 80% of Americans consider hotels should take steps to protect the environment[5] and an increasing number base their accommodation selection upon these factors In addition to the above most research has indicated that these forms of tourism have economic benefits for the hotels and destinations. 2.2.  Business Eco-travel The corporate market is also becoming increasingly involved with environmental and sustainable issues[6]. This has occurred both because of the increasing national and international legislation that is being introduced to tackle the effects of climate change and is being influenced by the changing demands of their consumers. An integral part of annual reporting for the majority of corporations today is the inclusion of a corporate and social responsibility report (CSR). Within this document is included an overview of the business response and performance upon issues such as steps to make the corporation processes and operations more environmentally friendly and its contribution towards sustainability within the local community. Reducing the corporate carbon footprint is as essential element of these CSR performances and therefore the importance of the environmental impact of business travel, which hotel and hospitality accommodation is an element of, is becoming increasingly importan t for the business brand. The US travel industry is one of the economy’s largest sectors and produces revenues in excess of $100 billion per annum, of which 70% is spent on domestic travel. Of this domestic travel element approximately 45% is related to business travel and accommodation requirements. Based upon the fact that 80% of the US population believes that hotels should take a protective approach to the environment, it therefore is apparent that there is a considerable potential for revenue growth to be generated by offering corporate hospitality, with the product being enhanced to include the environmental and sustainable factor that are becoming increasingly important. 2.3.  The hospitality and tourism market in Florida As can be seen from the following graph (figure 1), the visitor numbers to Florida as a state has experienced a year on year growth of domestic, overseas, and Canadian visitor numbers since the turn of the century[7]. These numbers include both the business and tourism sectors. As can be seen from this graph, although the numbers of overseas an Canadian visitors have remained relatively flat for the period, the significant rise in domestic tourists has increased by nearly thirty percent as more US citizens are taking domestic vacations. In addition, the same research indicates that, of this number, approximately 44.3% uses hotels and other paid accommodation, which in 2007 equates to around 37.4 million guests to be accommodated. In terms of the hotel market specifically related to Miami, a recent report indicated that occupancy rates for the Greater Miami area for the first four months of 2008 were up to 80.5% with room rates averaging $196.61[8]. However, this position is expected to have slowed during the final part of the year and is likely to remain static for 2009 due to the global economic downturn. Nevertheless, as will be shown later within this report, these rates are considerably higher than the business plan for this project envisages. 3. Marketing ECO-REST hotel has set its target occupancy rate for the business at 70% with an average room rate, taking into account discounts and special offers, of $170. To achieve the targets set, a strategic marketing programme has been designed, which will concentrate upon the following three areas. 3.1.  Tourist and corporate travel operators Although a number of eco-tourists and business travellers tend to book and compile the component parts of their visits to Florida and Miami via the Internet, a large number still rely upon the services of external agencies. These include travel agents and tour operators. It is the intention of the business to create relationships with these organisations, particularly those that have an interest in eco and sustainable tourism and hospitality. To cement these relationships, the hotel will offer discounts at certain times and also provide evaluation and inspection visits, particularly at times of low occupancy, to enable representatives from these organisations to have a better understanding of the facilities offered by the hotel and its aims and objectives. 3.2.  Advertising and promotion It is important part of the strategic marketing programme for the business to promote the unique selling points (USP’s) of its business. Therefore, the focus of promotional material will be the environmentally friendly aspects of the business accommodation and the charitable support it provides to local and regional organisations directly involved with projects that address these issues. Furthermore, it will be necessary to ensure that the promotional message is directed to the most appropriate market segment. To achieve this objective the business intends to take a threefold approach. Promotion to destination organisations, such as cultural and nature attractions, including seeking to have the hotel advertised on their advertising literature Linking with members of such organisations through newsletters or other advertising based upon their membership lists Appropriate advertising targeted at the publications and media events relating to the issues that are relevant to the hotel’s aims and objectives In addition to these methods, it is intended to design an attractive website that displays and promotes all the important aspect of the hotel and its facilities. This will include visual and video images of the hotel and audio as well as written data and an interactive booking facility. The online promotion programme will also include a significant element of networking. This will be achieved by the creating of a corporate blog, interactive links with relevant organisations and charities and involvement with appropriate social networking sites, such as â€Å"You-tube†. 3.3.  Strategic alliances The third aspect of the marketing strategy for the business is to create strategic alliances with organisations and corporations that provide a fit for ECO-REST hotel’s USPs. Included amongst this selection will be the state tourist and environment offices, local NGO’s such as Friends of the Everglades and historical and cultural destination operators. To access the corporate market alliances will be formed local and regional trade and commerce associations supported by personal invitations to local corporations to visit the hotel and experience its facilities with the objective of securing occupancy from the out of areas suppliers and sales personnel that visit these businesses. It is anticipated that a targeted and disciplined marketing and promotional programme that incorporates the above described elements will enable the business to achieve its occupancy target within the first year of operations. 4. Competitors There are a considerable number of hotels and similar establishment in Florida and in the Greater Miami district. A reasonable segment of these hotels, due to their small sizes and limited facilities, would not present a competitive threat the ECO-REST’s project. Furthermore, in terms of specific comparisons, whilst most of the hotels have made certain attempts at becoming eco-friendly, many still have areas in this regard that require improvement. Evidence of this can be found at a website called Best Green Hotels, which reviews hotels and accommodation by a set of environmental indicators[9]. An example of this criterion can be found in appendix 2. The scoring system, based upon a â€Å"green† tree badge system, works in the following manner. 1 tree=1-4 ticks on the list 2 trees=5-9 ticks 3 trees=10-15 ticks 4 green trees=16-22 ticks 5 trees=27-29 trees 6 trees= 27-28 ticks 7 trees=29 ticks (maximum) A review of the 224 hotels listed for Florida and the six specific to a Miami search shows that none of these establishments have so far achieved a position of more than four stars. The aim for ECO-REST hotel is to create an environment that will enable the establishment to fulfil all of the stated criteria, thus achieving the highest award level offered by this listing. The intention therefore is to use this criterion as a guide to ensure that the environmental objectives of the business are achieved. 4.1.  Five forces analysis Addressing the hotel market in the Greater Miami area by using the five forces strategy developed by Michael Porter[10] it is anticipated that, whilst there are some concerns, the objective discussed earlier should place ECO-REST in a strong position to be able to gain a competitive advantage. Figure 2 Porters five forces Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porter_5_forces_analysis Rivalry Due to its location and brand awareness in the tourism and hospitality industry, the supply of hotel rooms in the Miami area is reasonably high, with a number of establishments that the tourist and business traveller. With the ECO-REST project involving the razing and rebuilding of an existing establishment it is unlikely that there will be any appreciable increase in the supply of room nights available in the area. Similarly, as the business average rate determinate is in line with current market rates it is considered unlikely that rivalry based upon price will be an immediate issue. It is further anticipated that the strategy being adopted by the ECO-REST hotel has a sufficient level of product differentiation to reduce the influence that rivalry might have upon its establishment[11]. In addition, research undertaken to date, mainly web based, has revealed few hospitality establishments operating on a non-profit basis apart from those directly aimed at the social service market, for example, those dealing with issues such as homelessness and persons experiencing social deprivation for a number of reasons. Supplier power Because the business is seeking to work through a number of strategic alliances within the travel industry and providing incentives from which these stakeholders will benefit, the level of supplier power will be reduced. An additional benefit in this respect will be accomplished by the fact that excess revenues from the ECO-REST project will be fed back to local environment and cultural project, thus leading to a level of competitive advantage that would not be achievable by the commercial hotel sector. With the requirement of creating â€Å"added value† for their shareholders, together with the cost of dividends, taxes and management benefit packages; these corporations will not be able to compete with the donation levels available to ECO-REST. Furthermore, the prospect of such funding will enhance the value of the relationship that ECO-REST will enjoy with local suppliers. Buyer power Buyer power is perhaps the most volatile element of the five forces framework to assess for two reasons. Firstly because the product has to match with the buyer’s or consumers purchasing determinates and demands and secondly because the experience has to match with their expectation in terms of satisfaction. However, based upon the researched that has been outlined in sections 2.1 and 2.2 of this proposal it is considered that the product offered by ECO-REST hotels addresses the first of these issues in that the hotel environment matches the increased demands for an environmentally friendly product. In terms of the second aspect, it is considered that, with the degree of quality attached to the hotel establishment and the anticipated service quality, the physical experience should exceed the consumers’ expectations. Substitute products Existing hotel establishments will find it impossible to match the product that is being offered by ECO-REST hotels without a severe disruption to their current trading levels. The benefit for ECO-REST is that this project is commencing with a â€Å"clean sheet† approach. This approach allows for the incorporation of eco-friendly systems at the design and construction stage of the project (see more detail in section 5). These will be applied to the building itself, its utilities and the external landscape. The cost of conversion or redevelopment of an existing hotel, particularly if undertaken by a commercially orientated organisation, would prove prohibitive to existing operators. Additionally, in the event that such organisations should decide to follow the lead set by ECO-REST hotel, the timescale for redevelopment provides this project with the benefit of being able to consolidate its market share and â€Å"first-mover† position in this niche sector of the hospitality market. Barriers to entry Barriers to entry into the niche market that is being anticipated within this project are considered to exist in the following areas: Non-profit structure The fact that the ECO-REST hotel is designed to be a non-profit organisation will reduce the numbers of new entrants by eliminating the commercial investor from this sector of the hospitality market as, if this model is followed; there is no commercial return on the investment made. Cost and timescale for development To commence a development of the nature of ECO-REST hotels does require the outlay of a considerable cost. Moreover, the timescale to completion is anticipated to be in the region of nine months. These factors will have a deterrent effect upon new entrants in two ways, particularly if this entrant is a commercially minded organisation. Firstly, the return on the investment in the short term will influence the level of costs attributable to the project. Secondly, the time taken for completion will provide first movers and preceding entrants, such as ECO-REST with the ability to establish the Brand and gain competitive advantage Strategic alliances The development of strong strategic alliances with the organisations as outlined in section 3.3 of this report, together with a programme that ensures continuing process of bi-directional and interactive communication between the ECO-REST business and these stakeholders will serve to reduce the potential of such organisations being tempted to change their allegiance to new entrants. Research has shown that, providing the right quality of service and commitment to stakeholders is maintained their inclination to change to a new promotional or revenue source will be reduced. Economic benefits As will be evidenced in the financial details contained within section 7, the reduction and elimination of the commercial elements from an operation that is conducted within the non-profit sector does present certain advantages to the beneficiaries of the product. In particular, in the case of this specific project those beneficiaries exist within two main areas. In the first instance of the profits (or excess revenues) from the ECO-REST project are being returned to the local economy. Secondly, and of equal importance, the project is designed to attract a more affluent and discerning visitor to the locale, which will increase revenues enjoyed by other commercial organisations situated in the Greater Miami district. Community benefits Finally, the project is designed to bring benefits to the local community. By increasing tax revenues to the district it enables the local authority to undertake more improvements to the community infrastructure and the environment in which its citizens dwell. Similarly, by increasing the funding available to local tourist natural and cultural destinations the project will improve the community’s enjoyment of their leisure facilities. 5. Corporate strategy Within this section of the business proposal the strategy and operational principles and procedures for the ECO-REST hotel project are presented and discussed in further depth. 5.1.  Start up strategy ECO-REST hotel is currently working closely with the WTO[12], a local architect and a US construction corporation renowned for their involvement with the construction of environmentally friendly buildings. With the increased levels of concerns relating to environmental issues and the desire to sustain local destinations and environments, it is anticipated that the planning application and approval stage of this development should be completed within two months of that application being lodged with the local authorities. Currently two sites are being evaluated and discussed concerning their suitability for the project. The basis for continuation of the project has been agreed to concentrate around the following format. The construction company, taking advantage of the favourable grants and loans available for the construction of environmentally friendly structures, have agreed to fund the cost of the building works. In return for this advantage, the property, when completed, will be leased back to ECO-REST for a period of forty years at a rate that is commensurate with current market values. Consideration is being given to extending this business model and concept throughout other US states in the future, thus increasing the funds available to local natural and cultural destinations and enhancing the lifestyle and economic wealth that attracts to the local community. This project will also serve the purpose of heightening the awareness of the population to the environmental issues and dangers currently being faced by the global community, whilst at the same time demonstrating that the solution to these issues does not always require the motivation of the profit or shareholder â€Å"added value† drivers. Furthermore, it will also show that, providing the desired relationships can be developed between social and environmental needs and the commercial ethos in a manner that merges the motivational needs and requirements of all of the stakeholders, each and every one of these stakeholders will benefit from the concerted effort required to complete and fulfil these pro jects. 5.2.  Operating principles The operating principles, or mission statement, that has been proven to be the driving force behind the ethos upon which this project has been developed is: â€Å"It is possible, by the building of a new and unique relationship between the varied objectives of numerous stakeholders, to create a vision for the future that satisfies the needs and aspirations of all of these parties.† Furthermore, following the success of this project it will also show that, providing corporations within the tourism and hospitality sector fulfil the promises that are made to other stakeholders within the supply chain, . Environment To ensure that the ECO-REST project addresses the environmental issues being faced by the global community in the twenty-first century, and to set an example for the future, the following are some of the environmental systems of improvements will be used in the construction and design of the new building. These methods are also intended to enhance the comfort of the experience for the guests who stay at the hotel. Building The basic structure will be circular in shape and all of the rooms will be build around a central core which will house on the ground floor the extra facilities such as the conferencing rooms, dining and lounge areas. A special glass central roofing section will be installed, enabled to warm the building in the winter and cool it during the summer. As many common areas as possible will be walled in glass (similar to the design on the book cover left). The advantage of this design and roofing is that it will increase the amount of daylight that penetrates the building, thus reducing energy usage. Much of the structural work will make use of recyclable materials. It has also been noticed that in standard hotels one of the major sources of energy waste evolves from the fact that the bedrooms and accommodation areas are often quite dark, even during the course of the day. To reduce the use of lighting in these areas the bedroom windows will stretch the width of the room. Moreover, the main doors will be panelled with non-see-through toughened glass to improve daylight access to the rooms from the centre of the hotel. Energy systems Modern environmentally friendly energy systems will be incorporated into the building. This will include the use of Geo-thermal underground heating, solar panelling for water heating and other power supply purposes. In addition, miniature wind turbines will be strategically placed around the building structure to support the efforts to make the hotel free from reliance upon fossil fuels. Water In terms of the water supply a grey water system will be installed to ensure that waste water is cleaned and recycled for use in such areas as the toilet system and for garden irrigation purposes. Additionally, modern water saving techniques will be used in the bathroom facilities and the central hotel laundry. Finally, water storage systems will be installed to ensure maximum usage of natural rainwater. Waste As much human waste as is possible will also be treated and recycled in the outdoor garden areas. Guests will also be encouraged to help in the recycling process through the provision of special bins in their rooms so that they can separate the waste paper etc that is left from their stay. Garden and landscaping It is intended to also extend the environmentally friendly and sustainable systems into the garden area with the designing and implementing of xeric gardens and, furthermore, one new tree will be planted in the grounds for each of the bedrooms and suites that the hotel offers in

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Macbeths Conniving Lady Essay -- Macbeth essays

Macbeth's Conniving Lady      Ã‚  Ã‚   William Shakespeare's popular tragedy Macbeth surprises the audience with the character of Lady Macbeth, who is quite evil in her inclinations. Let us explore her memorable character in this paper.    Clark and Wright in their Introduction to The Complete Works of William Shakespeare interpret the character of Lady Macbeth:    Lady Macbeth is of a finer and more delicate nature. Having fixed her eye upon the end - the attainment for her husband of Duncan's crown - she accepts the inevitable means; she nerves herself for the terrible night's work by artificial stimulants; yet she cannot strike the sleeping king who resembles her father. Having sustained her weaker husband, her own strength gives way; and in sleep, when her will cannot control her thoughts, she is piteously afflicted by the memory of one stain of blood upon her little hand.   (792)    In "Memoranda: Remarks on the Character of Lady Macbeth," Sarah Siddons comments on the Lady's cold manner:    [Macbeth] announces the King's approach; and she, insensible it should seem to all the perils which he has encountered in battle, and to all the happiness of his safe return to her, -- for not one kind word of greeting or congratulations does she offer, -- is so entirely swallowed up by the horrible design, which has probably been suggested to her by his letters, as to have forgotten both the one and the other. It is very remarkable that Macbeth is frequent in expressions of tenderness to his wife, while she never betrays one symptom of affection towards him, till, in the fiery furnace of affliction, her iron heart is melted down to softness. (56)    Fanny Kemble in "Lady Macbeth" depicts the character of M... ...Blakemore Evans. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1972.    Knights, L.C. "Macbeth." Shakespeare: The Tragedies. A Collectiion of Critical Essays. Alfred Harbage, ed. Englewwod Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1964.    Mack, Maynard. Everybody's Shakespeare: Reflections Chiefly on the Tragedies. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.    Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Macbeth. http://chemicool.com/Shakespeare/macbeth/full.html, no lin.    Siddons, Sarah. "Memoranda: Remarks on the Character of Lady Macbeth." The Life of Mrs. Siddons. Thomas Campbell. London: Effingham Wilson, 1834. Rpt. in Women Reading Shakespeare 1660-1900. Ann Thompson and Sasha Roberts, eds. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1997.    Wilson, H. S. On the Design of Shakespearean Tragedy. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 1957.

Friday, October 11, 2019

because I like them but just because these products are advertised. :: essays papers

How does media influence the male and female body Media is the most important factor that influences us on how we view our body’s image. Throughout time, we saw how many famous singers and actors were role models for our society. It is an unpleasant fact, that we see these perfect figures as our role models, and struggle to have a perfect body as they do. Advertisements also show models that have perfect figures and they use these models to sell products that unfortunately damage our bodies. We take every necessary action to achieve that goal of having a perfect body. Personally, the media also influences me and I buy certain products, not because I like them but just because these products are advertised. Initially, many famous singers and actors have perfect figures and as they appear in the society, they show us that this is how we should look. For example, if I see a singer or an actor on TV or in a magazine, I look at them and then I start comparing my body to theirs. I feel like I need to change my body and wear clothes that the celebrities are wearing, so I could become more like them. Moreover, when I see myself in the mirror, I get a negative view of myself and I start feeling very uncomfortable about the way I look. Luckily, I do not go too far to change my body but there are people who take drugs, change their eating habits, or even go through painful surgeries to change their body. If we present our society with actors and singers who are more like an average person then we might save many men from taking certain drugs and women from getting breast implants. Advertisements also influence our society on how we view ourselves. We see so many advertisements where models are smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages. All of these advertisements presented to adults and children are spreading a negative message; these advertisements are proving that smoking and drinking is all right for our bodies. None of these advertisements expose how these products will damage our bodies. These advertisements do not care about our health; they are more concerned about their profits. Many teenagers start smoking because of these advertisements and most of them keep smoking until the day this poison kills them.

The Jade Peony–Sek-Lung Is a Marginal Character

A strong, intelligent, independent boy is what every traditional Chinese family wants. Unfortunately, Sek-Lung is not such an ideal child. In the novel, The Jade Peony, Sek-Lung is a marginal character. He is rejected by the dominant group, first being made to feel insignificant and second to feel uncomfortably visible. Sek-Lung is born in Canada, with a sick body, being considered inferior and unimportant. To begin with, he gains a reputation because of his brainlessness. Referring to his own feeling, â€Å"everyone knew [†¦] I was brainless† (Choy 145). For example, â€Å"I would say ‘Third Uncle’ instead of ‘Great Uncle’ † (Choy 145).That is because he is stuck between two cultures. In English, kinship terms are simple, but in Chinese, they are complicated, and Sek-Lung is so confused. Another reason is because he is not allowed to go to school due to a lung infection, and he cannot receive proper education, neither from English school nor Chinese school, which restricts his knowledge. Every time he uses improper Chinese, he is insulted by being called brainless. In addition, the lung infection makes him very weak, and he has to stay at home, while â€Å"everyone in the family is caught up with work and school† (Choy 186).In fact, â€Å"Kiam was fifteen and was getting all A’s at King Edward High; Jung was twelve and was learning how to box [†¦] at Hastings Gym† (Choy 148), and his sister can â€Å"read rapidly† (Choy 176). His siblings impress him so much with their amazing abilities. In contrast, Sek-Lung can do nothing, which makes him feel inferior. Furthermore, he recognizes that he is a burden in his family. He thinks, â€Å"I did everything to ruin their time with me, if they stayed around at all† (Choy 224). For instance, each family member needs to take turns to teach him.He notices that he is wasting their time, and actually they do not like spending time with him. In brief, Sek-Lung is brainless, not as good as his siblings, and he is treated as a waste. Sek-Lung, growing up in an unusual background, is made to stand out, because he is different from others. First, he is insecure, and he is afraid that he will not get along with other students. When he first goes to school, â€Å"Jung’s tough-guy reputation protected I from the school bullies† (Choy 174). A marginal character is always unconfident.Because of his weakness, brainlessness and different cultural background, he worries about getting into trouble. Second, Sek-Lung, spending all his childhood with Poh-Poh, is the only person who sees her ghost. For example, after Poh-Poh dies, every time the windows mysteriously close or make noises, Sek-Lung insists, â€Å"It’s Grandmama† (Choy 181), â€Å"[†¦] and everyone [glares] at [him]† (Choy 181). Poh-Poh is his closest family member, and he cannot get over her death. He believes that Poh-Poh’s soul will come back and protect him. However, in his family’s eyes, he is acting strange, and no one believes him.Besides, his family thinks he will shame their name. For example, sister Liang refuses to take him out because people will see or hear him. Similarly, â€Å"Chinatown people turned away, muttering behind my back† (Choy 178). He is not only noticeable in his family, but also well-known all over Chinatown. People think he may be crazy or he really sees a ghost, which shows that he is unlucky, and either point of view will make him be rejected by society, because no one likes abnormal persons at that period. To conclude, Sek-Lung becomes marginal by being treated as insignificant and distinctive.