Saturday, August 31, 2019

Limiting the Extent of Party Discipline in Canada Essay

Party solidarity and cohesion have always been an integral part of the Westminster Parliamentry system. The leaders of the political parties of the Canadian House of Commons , with the assistance of ‘whips’, very strongly discipline their party members to vote on issues as a single entity, especially in plenary sessions (Olson, 2003). Although, some degree of party discipline is essential for any political party to maintain their power as they require the confidence of the majority of the legislative branch of the government, this practice does not really reflect a democracy. This paper argues that implememnting a large extent of party discipline undermines the spirit of democracy as the politicians become more concerned with appeasing their party leaders for their personal benefits, instead of truly representing the desires and demands of the citizens of their respective constituencies. As mentioned previously, it is argued that strict party discipline is necessary to ensure that the current governnig party maintains its power since a vote of non confidence in the House of Commons can ultimately lead to federal re-election, or re-appointment of the prime minister. However, as Kilgour et al. rgue in Crosscurrents: Contemporaty Political Issues (2013: 205), enforcing strict cohesion strategies to ensure party unity leads to members of Parliament to become extreamly passive as they no longer think for themselves, but merely conform to the demands of their party leaders. Their opinions and thoughts are constrsained by a fear of a loss of majority in the House Of Commons. It is very crucial for any political party to value and respect the opinions of its members to assess a situation more closely and obtain diverse opinions. However, strong party discipline stifles the values and opinions of individual members of party. Consequently, this diversity of imagination is replaced by a single unit of party that reflects a single, rigid opinion on most issues. This devalues the sense of liberty and freedom that is cherished by democracy. Often times, it is observed that the members of a party vote in a similar fashion, not just to ensure a majority confidence motion, but also to derive personal gains. If a member of parliament wishes to advance their political career and gain quicker promotions, he or she muct act according to the command of their party leaders (Kam, 2006). Expression of dissent from the MPs can have dire consequences for their career. They can be warned about the lack of financial support, or even be ultimately expelled from the party caucus. Kam (2006) also suggested that the promotion of ministers is greatly manipulated by the prime minister to ensure maximum conformation to the party’s position. Sometimes, certain ministers of parliament are deliberately brought into the cabinet as it is too dangerous to leave them as a backbencher (a member of House of Commons) where they can openly challenge and vote against the position of the leader of the political party. This suggests that the deliberate promotion, or demotion, ministers of parliament is not due to their, merits or demerits, but is rather strategically devised to overall benefit the party. In addition, the vote of the members of the House of Commons not only does not represent the opinions of individual ministers, but also it not a representation of a member’s unyielding and unconditional loyalty to his or her party. Rather, it is a conscious decision to vote according to the wishes of the party leader to maintain the imge of conformity and ensure personal gains and benefits for the members of parliament, which would reward in the form of more opportunities to ascend the political ladder and make personal and professional gains that do not particularly benefit the citizens of the consituency that elected the member of parliament. It is unquestionable that voting in the Canadian House of Common is extremely disciplined and very highly regulated by emloying various methods. The study of the patterns of recorded votes shows that majority of votes show almost no dissent from the party members. Also, rejection of major government motions due to dissent of the members of the House of Commons is extremely rare (Malloy, 2003). Canada operates on a system of majoritarian parliamentary government. Cohesion of political parties is very essential to maintain a majority rule by ensuring that vote of non confidence is not ever issued (Kam, 2001). Due to this constant threat of the possibility of loss of majority and formation of a coalition, political parties are very strongly disciplined by their leaders. A coalition governmet is not necessarily always detremental. It can help to foster more cooperation in different political parties and compel the members of a party to consider the opinions and views that are different from the ideology shared by their party. It also provides an opportunity for a greater debate and consideration before arriving at a common decision. Maintaining strong party discipline just to eliminate the possibility of the formation of a coalitions limits the possibilities for political experimentation and possible positive growth. The change is not just welcomed, but also deliberately resisted using the traditional practice of oppressive party discipline. The members of parliament are elected by, and are required to respresent the citizens of their respective constituencies. The common vision shared by their party and party leader may or may not reflect the wishes of the citizens. The first and foremost duty of an MP is to cater to the needs and the demands of the citizens who democratically elected him or her. The loyalty to one’s party should be a secondary priority. However, as observed, most times, this is not the case. This severely debilitates the sole purpose of a democratic government which demands the citizens’ voice and opinions to be heard above all others. Although some degree of party discipline may be required to control and maintain cohesion within the House of Commons to propose policies and arrive at a firm decision, it does not really encompass democratic ideas. Party discipline compells the members of a party to not pay heed to the needs of the citizens, but to blindly follow the demands made by their party leaders. This practice is also morally questionable as the political success of ministers of parliament is largely based on their loyalty to the party’s alues, even if they contradict his/ her personal opinions. Instead of being constantly threatened by the possiblity of losing the confidence of the majority of the House of Commons, fundamental changes need to be made to change the Westmister Parliamentry structure to alter, if not eliminate, this system that makes it almost mandatory for the parties to implement rigid party discipline. Limiting the extent of the party discipline would help to make the Canadian government more democratic by accomodating more diverse ideas and opinions.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Catastrophic Predictions Essay

The most recent predictions were observed on the date December 21, 2012; for which the Mayan calendar ran out. Other prediction statements involved the earth being centered in the middle of the Milky Way and the planets becoming lined in such a manner that would affect the earth’s polarity. There have been a countless amount of catastrophic disaster predictions foretold for many years. Even some famous individuals like Nostradamus have made predictions that caused panic and havoc amongst believers. Incidentally, most predictions are challenged by scientist; to prove that they are truly false statements and can be provide evidence against them. So, why do we want to assume the worst before hearing all the facts? Catastrophic predictions for December 21, 2012; expressed the concerns that doomsday or Armageddon were at hand. Two of the most popular predictions were the Mayan calendar and the planetary alignment. Between the two predictions several individuals have derived a conclusion; that on a certain date changes in our earth’s astrological makeup will be involved in changing our lives. Now, does that mean the end of time as we know it or just an event which occurs in cycles? In the course of scientific evaluations; each element has been logically examined to provide answers to contradict the beliefs that these predictions will be the end of times. Scientists and historians working together can explain the prediction of the ancient calendar of the Mayans. The Mayan calendar is about to end its cycle and the new beginning arrives on December 21, 2012. Doomsday believers feel that the Mayan’s stone calendar is the real thing this time. These believers feel that the government is withholding the truth. In fact, the Mayan calendar differs from our current system that we use today. Our calendar holds only twelve months per cycle year. The Mayan calendar is often referred to as the Calendar Round. â€Å"The Calendar Round covers a time period equal to 52 solar years or 73 ritual years. The time is significant because in every Calendar Round all the possible combinations of haab and tzolkin cycles will have been experienced and they will re-synchronize at the same starting point (Bellenir, 2004).† Scientific explanations for this prediction of the end of days show that it has been misunderstood by many individuals. Basically, the haab cycle consist of eighteen months of twenty days per month and an additional five days at the end of the cycle (Lewin , 2011). Each day in the haab months is given a name from the tzolkin list. It is similar to our list of Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday. The exception is that the zolkin list has unique names for each one of the twenty days. Evidence dated during a prior Mayan calendar ending cycle has been found. The theory of climate change could be observed in the discovery. Scientists are researching what seems to be a plant that once lived during a previous Mayan calendar cycle. â€Å"5,200-year-old plants flash frozen. Millennia ago when the last great calendar cycle of the Mayan came to an end, rapid climate change shook up the world and devastated habitats (PR Newswire Association LLC, 2009).† Could there be other evidence that has yet to be found to show what happens during that cycle? Certainly, there will need to be more studies done, but until then, individuals will express their own beliefs and opinions regarding the predictions using the Mayan Calendar. â€Å"The planetary alignment with Earth suddenly at the center of the Milky Way in 2012 — causing untold destruction as the earth’s crust ruptures, seas swamp our coastlines, volcanoes erupt and continental fault lines shatter (Machosky, 2009).† Can planetary alignment really cause the Earth’s magnetic poles to reverse and cause havoc across the planet? Disasters that maybe experienced from such an alignment could result from environmental changes. Followers of this prediction feel that we are already experiencing effects with the Earth’s weather elements and the earthquakes felt around the planet. The polar ice cap is still melting at a slow rate. Could this cause the water level to rise in areas if the poles reverse? Scientists and meteorologists feel that this prediction has will not cause any catastrophic disaster for us. The equinoxes (and solstices) has caused concerns and is often misunderstood when this cycle event happens. â€Å"The Sun is not a pinpoint object and takes some time to cross the galactic equator; they coincide once a year for several years (Stuart, 2011).† Winter solstice was observed on December 21, 2012; which is when the Sun has reached its furthest southern point and starts heading a northerly direction. â€Å"A few days before and after the winter solstice, the change is so slight that the Sun’s path seems to stay the same, or stand still (Yankee Publishing, Inc., 2012).† Does this mean it is a sign of a catastrophic event? No, this happens all the time and our Earth has no drastic affect. Individuals can often seek more reliable proof through specialist. Even the best scholars and scientists will often bump heads during their investigation period of a prediction. The difference between the two groups of specialists is the way they use the â€Å"results base factor†. Scholars will derive their material from proven result factors; along with any theory that is applicable. Scientists mainly need to have actual facts for a proven base result. Both will probe at the task, until satisfied in their findings. It would be hard to keep any catastrophic disaster a secret. Why would they? They have just as much to lose as everyone else if the Earth was going to be in harm’s way. If we take a look back at some of the famous writings of Nostradamus and his prediction materials we would find encoded messages; which have been studied by other scholars even today. â€Å"Nostradamus’s deeply arcane approach; including obscure astrological methods and the use of an esoteric code known as the â€Å"Green Language† (Abbott, Gold, & Rotella, 2000).† Nostradamus did not make it easy to read his predictions and for many years individuals have tried to break the code. His followers believe that much of Nostradamus’s predictions have already happened and that he was gifted with the sight of true predictions. Furthermore, the slightest misdirection or code breaking could result in a false statement predicting that the end is near. Who should we believe when it comes to the facts that a catastrophic disaster is coming our way? Many movies have been created with different outcomes of a catastrophic disaster. Each film is pointing the finger; that we are not prepared enough. The government is in control on the way things will be handled during a catastrophic disaster, even in the moves. We can feel confident that our government would inform us that the world was in danger. They would even have a plan set in place just for such an event. Many individuals have even started their own game plan for action during doomsday. Preparing for any expecting disaster is often taken seriously by individuals believing that the predictions are about to come true. Some believers handle it in different ways; for example: they might have planned to attend a celebration party. Others may celebrate the passing event in private settings. If this sounds familiar, it should because that is what they did on the Millennium (2000). A brief reminder of that prediction was that computers were not going to work. Which turned out to be just a small programming issue and computers still work today. Many bank account customers rushed to withdrew funds; in fear that their money would be lost. What are we afraid of? Is it the not knowing what? Or could it be the not knowing when a disaster will occur that has many getting ready ahead of time? Those individuals who believe in the disaster will shift into a survival mode. Survival supplies are stockpiled for the long duration of the event. The amount of supplies depends on the individual’s needs and type of disaster being observed. Water is one of the major items on the list; both for drinking and cleaning needs. Using special care not to store plastic bottles of water in direct sunlight; for research is still pending on the harm from toxicants produced during prolonged sun exposures (Rogers, 2012). Food and medical supplies are another demand on a stockpile list for survival of a disaster. Having a list ahead of time can help keeping track of the inventory. In addition, individuals may take it even future by seeking out a place to hold out until the disaster is over. Underground shelters have been designed and are in place for safety measures; at a high purchase price. Believers in the catastrophic prediction will gladly spend money on solid, reinforced, deep underground shelters; designed to withstand most disasters. These shelters are equipped with electrical power or self-contained with solar power. The price range depends on the size verse the structure. â€Å"Diameters of 8†², 9†², 10†², 11†² 12†² x 20†² to 50†² lengths are available on custom orders. Prices start at $49,900 (Atlas Survival Shelters, 2012).† This example is for the shelter itself; the property cost is additional. Shelter manufacturers have different floor plans to choose from, remember the buyer could be living in it for a long time. It depends on what you believe in; there is another type of believer and they will reach for the heavens in time of need. Religious communities will often come together to make peace. In times of despair many churches will have gatherings for prayer so members can join together with each other. Past religious cults even had predictions that their group called â€Å"Heaven’s Gate† of 1997 was to meet with a spaceship. That prediction cost thirty nine individuals their lives. Of course, no spaceship ever arrived for them.The news media was quick to report this sad event; massive suicides are common when misadvised individuals want to believe what someone tells them. Once the danger passes the due date; how do we react finding it was indeed another false statement? Some individuals start to unpack their underground shelter and others may keep it ready for the next prediction. While others just feel like it is another day; glad that they disbelieved in the predictions. Everyone has a choice to believe or disbelieve in the predictions. We should be able to give more thought into the research results of specialists; for indeed there are more explanations in favor of nothing going to happen. Another perfect example has passed by on â€Å"December 21, 2012† for the outcome has been proven that in view of the scientific spectrum no evidence occurred that put us in danger of existence. Future false statements will be tested each time by professionals and facts will be shared openly to us all. Giving us a safe and secure feeling to continue our daily lives; until next time. References Abbott, C., Gold, S. F., & Rotella, M. (2000). The Secrets Of Nostradamus: A Radical New Interpretation of the Master’s Prophecies. Retrieved 2012, from Publishers Weekly: http://www.lirn.net/services/proxy?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/197051024?accountid=40833 Atlas Survival Shelters. (2012). Galvanized Corrugated Pipe. Retrieved from Atlas Survival Shelters: http://www.atlassurvivalshelters.com/aboutus/nbc/corrugated/ Bellenir, K. (2004). In Religious Holidays & Calendars. Retrieved from Credo Reference: http://www.lirn.net/services/proxy?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.credoreference.com/entry/ogirholidays/the_mayan_and_aztec_calendars Lewin , N. (2011). The Haab. Retrieved from THE MAYAN TRADITION – THE OTHERS CALENDARS: http://www.4-ahau.com/en/The_Haab.html Machosky, M. (2009). Apocalypse now? Well, more like, three years from now. Retrieved 2012, from ProQuest: http://www.lirn.net/services/proxy?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/457147731?accountid=40833 PR N ewswire Association LLC. (2009). What if the Maya Were Right and Doomsday is Just Around the Corner? National Geographic Channel Investigates the Science Behind Ancient Clues in 2012: Countdown to Armageddon. Retrieved 2012, from ProQuest: http://www.lirn.net/services/proxy?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/447787532?accountid=40833 Rogers, C. D. (2012). Are Clear Water Bottles Safe for Sun Exposure? Retrieved from National Geographic Society: http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com/clear-water-bottles-safe-sun-exposure-20417.html Stuart, D. (2011). The Order of Days: The Maya World and the Truth about 2012. Retrieved from Gale Science in Context: http://ic.galegroup.com:80/ic/scic/AcademicJournalsDetailsPage/AcademicJournalsDetailsWindow?displayGroupName=Journals&disableHighlighting=false&search_within_results=&prodId=SCIC&action=2&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CA263992162&userGroupName=lirn_crevc&jsid= Yankee Publishing, Inc. (2012). First Day of Winter 2012: The Winter Solstice. Retrieved from The Old Farmer’s Almanac: http://www.almanac.com/content/first-day-winter-winter-solstice

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Investigations of the risks and challenges with offshore outsourcing Research Paper

Investigations of the risks and challenges with offshore outsourcing - Research Paper Example IT companies outsource their programming process. Despite being cost-effective, developed countries faces some risks and challenges outsourcing their IT. These also include hidden costs incurred during the outsourcing process. These factors have hindered the attainment of the desired wage rate savings. At times, companies adopt this labour arbitrage play with little or no regard of the risks, challenges or hidden costs involved leading to later regrets. These include distance, vendor selection, confidentiality, chain management, reduced wage gap, competition, compliance risks among others. India has benefited most from IT offshoring due to its technically proficient manpower and large pool of English speaking people. Risks and challenges Challenges of distance and transition According to Gonzalez et al (2010), great distance poses a challenge in vendor selection. This force IT companies in developed countries to rely on consultants in the foreign country hence making the initial proc ess expensive. The long distance between the country of origin and the vendor leads to high travelling expenses. This is because the company management needs to make regular direct monitoring of the business process in the foreign country to ensure smooth operation and maintenance of quality standards. This leads to additional costs that threaten to wipe the anticipated savings. During the offshore outsourcing, transition has been found to be an expensive part of the business. Companies have to restructure their delivery pyramids in order to overcome the operational complications of offshore outsourcing. The need for restructuring gets some companies off guard. This leads to significant increase in project costs in ways that were not expected (Doh 2005). The importation of workers with foreign knowledge is necessary during the transition phase. These workers are usually imported from the mother country of the company making the offshore outsourcing. The imported workers are required to learn how applications work, create required documentation and query offshore staff. They smooth up the requirements process and reduce rework. Some of them are brought in as business analysts or project managers. However, this is not sustainable for long if at all the company has to cut down on labour costs. In some cases, the imported staff experience language and cultural barriers during their offshore business relationship. Communication difficulty makes it challenging for them to work with staff in the vendor country. This means that the workers of the vendor country may not be able to get all the directions they need for effective and quality operations (Herath and Kishore 2009). There have been concerns from some of the consumers concerning the technical support and levels customer care offered oversees workers due to language barrier. A serious damage to technical support and quality of customer care affects the market. Customers may loose confidence in the quality of pr oducts being offered to them. When the challenge of distance is compounded with language and cultural barriers, it makes it difficult for the onshore and offshore teams to function as a coherent team. It also leads to reduced effectiveness in task assignments, project delays and missed requirements (Falk and Wolfmayr 2008). According to Raisinghani et al (2008), the cumulative result of the challenges of distance and, language and

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

The Self in the Community Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Self in the Community - Essay Example Primarily, it was at home and through the people by blood relation that, like majority of people do, I manage to have gradually established my real character. With this basic unit of community, I experience being formed in several aspects and this formation is altogether a product of values taught and examples demonstrated by the adults whose actions have, in a way or another, influenced my set of perspectives on living and how I should find a way with it. Consequently, I somehow realize that while I acquire a unique identity by nature and ambition, I impose upon myself to assume traits of others which the norms of the society in general restrict men to be governed by. Beyond the impact of family, my encounter of other human beings in school, for instance, has induced to my spontaneous ‘self’ plausible barriers and motivating factors alike. In the process of becoming emotionally and psychologically affected as a result, my personal knowledge expands and ascertains extern al behavior towards which I eventually learn about necessitating to regulate my freedom and choose actions that only operate by the standards that accord with the intersection of the human behaviors that are accepted by convention. Moreover, in return, I turn out not completely disposed to exercise the freedom associated with my identity within the real capacity I possess, and acting with suppressed disposition as such renders me to diminish some faith over the ability which with innocence I could openly take pride in and my performance thus, has come to depend amply on the perception and judgment by others outside the ‘self’ I purely was. Due to this ‘modified self’ in the community other than the fundamental one discovered at home, I observe that having to put bounds around the nature I am, it typically gives lee to the rest of the community members to assert themselves with ease and this, more often than not, settles my advantage in jeopardy the way I se e it. Getting pierced with grief and certain undesirable feeling of lowering self-worth at not receiving pertinent recognition, I unconsciously shield myself with a borrowed ‘persona’ to front an image that becomes less able to speak the truth (Identity). Equivalently, this is to show others that I have the strength to cope with societal complexities yet the more I neglect dealing with my actual weakness, the more that I tend to respond based on survival with several occasions of employing false humility or confidence just so my embitterment may be hidden from view and critique. Here, I perceive having ‘persona’ as an outward projection or an outer layer that masks my real desire attached with the original identity. At this point, I am aware that I have been reacquainted with my orientation this time it is far from the ‘true self’ as I substitute indifference via replacing my base character with personality or my temporary cover. Whenever this condition happens with frequency as in a classroom setting and no available unique element emerges to neutralize my losing side with an adequate quantity of triumph, in effect, my performance yields to impairment since I naturally deplete efficiency in job or hobby upon lack of inspiration. In this case, I suppose there is no way performance may be linked in direct

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Lenin State and Revolution Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Lenin State and Revolution - Essay Example According to him (Lenin), although the previous revolutions have succeeded in ensuring the state machine have perfected, the working class cannot sit down and expect the state machine to produce by itself. He clarifies that, the purpose of state and revolution is to exchange the violent and destructive revolution with very peaceful and coherent transition (Lenin 1941, p. 9). He was for the opinion that, the proletarian cannot achieve their requirement through violent means. His ideas were for the attainment and seizure of power without destruction of properties and the old state structures. Violence destroys the existing resources and work force therefore, conflict is tantamount to destruction of the already established properties which is very unethical. Lenin was not against the reformation but his main concern in the state and revolution was to discourage those people who took the Marx idea for granted that the bourgeois’ (owners of means of production) must be executed and destroyed together with their properties. According to him, the owners of the means of production are not bad but what is uncouth is the method they (bourgeois) use to control the political and economic avenues (Kelvin 1995, p. 90) Lenin observed that, very few countries can survive after destroying the bourgeois state. He believed that, in as long as the proletarian revolution must do away with the old states, it should not destroy and abolish the state itself (Kelvin 1995, p. 90). ... According to him, the owners of the means of production are not bad but what is uncouth is the method they (bourgeois) use to control the political and economic avenues (Kelvin 1995, p. 90) Lenin observed that, very few countries can survive after destroying the bourgeois state. He believed that, in as long as the proletarian revolution must do away with the old states, it should not destroy and abolish the state itself (Kelvin 1995, p. 90). The state must remain and it should life for along period of time without being destroyed. The resources which control and run the state are properties of the bourgeois. This therefore means, destroying the owners of means of production properties is equal to destruction of the state. His stand on the protection of the state does not imply that Lenin was for the opinion of weakening the revolution powers. He insisted that, the revolution power must be strong and need to extend their period of revolution. In as far as the reforms are relevant and important, Lenin insisted on not transforming working class into military militias. The transformation of the working class into military militia is only relevant if the owners of means of production use their military power to deter the revolutionaries’ effort. Nevertheless, transforming the working class to militia should be the last option when all the others options have failed (Kelvin 1995, p. 98). Lucio (1989, p. 69) states that, Lenin was not for the opinion that the proletarian class has only the mandate to dominate but not to govern. Such kind of ideas is for those who do not believe in changes in governance. According to Lenin, the state and revolutions are built on the ground of the proletariats having the capacity of

Monday, August 26, 2019

Business Intelligence in Action Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Business Intelligence in Action - Assignment Example The data that companies will try to seek is the preferences of many things that Facebook users have towards products and services. This information will enable the business make more money as they will strive to provide this. Most of the information that companies target are the private information and tastes of individuals. Individual browsing history will be tracked (Vitt, Luckevich, & Misner , 2010). From the information, Facebook is considered to be bad. One way in which this is taken is that Facebook does not inform the users that they are using their private information. Another thing is that Facebook shares Facebook users’ profile information without the consent of the users (Vitt, Luckevich, & Misner , 2010). BI puts our privacy at risk than before. We are no longer safe with the information we give on Facebook. We do not know who else will get access to this information. Information we give might be used to incriminate us because we do not know who else will get this

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Lev Shestov and Democratization of Thought Essay

Lev Shestov and Democratization of Thought - Essay Example Shestov displays a great amount of variety in his work and also borrows from the philosophy of the east in order to challenge the views that are established and belong to great thinkers. Through such a move, Shestov achieves a revolutionary approach that serves to challenge the existing order of things as they are in the society and in the universe. The complexities of such viewpoints are expressed in several works that he wrote. This paper shall seek to analyze an excerpt from the essay, â€Å"The Force of Argument†, which seeks to establish a dialogue between himself and the German philosopher, Arthur Schopenhauer, whose views Shestov was not in agreement with at all (Shestov 97). Using several points of view from different schools of thought, Shestov is able to provide a refutation of the argument that Schopenhauer presents and is also able to give his own argument a place in a continuity of history by anticipating its own modification by a later theorist, in the same way, that he was modifying the theories of Arthur Schopenhauer. Shestov criticizes the assumptions that Schopenhauer takes for granted while formulating his analyses of the condition of man. The distinction between the individual man and the collective is clearly laid out by Schopenhauer in his philosophy. The beginning and the end of man is taken as a given that cannot be refuted is also a basis for any future argument that Schopenhauer makes; which is to say, that it forms the bedrock of his later discourses. Shestov’s challenge is aimed at a challenge of the very basic assumptions that are taken for granted by philosophers like Schopenhauer. The excerpt from â€Å"The Force of Argument† makes it clear that the immortality of the soul can be defined in many ways. A man who is dead is considered to be dead as an individual merely because of the demise of the earthly identity of his body. Shestov does not consider this to be a legitimate ending; neither does he think that t his constitutes a definite ending to a person’s existence. Casting off the body that we see on this planet and the identity that is assumed on the earth, the soul may move to another planet and assume another identity clothing it with another covering. This may lead one to think that the ending of a person is not an ending but a continuation of the existence of a soul that was always present. The immortality of the soul is taken as a reference point even in this argument that Shestov provides as a refutation of an argument that he feels gives excessive importance to reference points, given by Schopenhauer. The absence of reference points and the immortality of the soul are aspects also of Christianity. However, the soul assuming new bodies in different planets after the death of one body is a definite influence of eastern philosophy, especially Hinduism, which believes in the transmigration of souls from one body to the other following death. It is a Eurocentric view that Sch openhauer takes when he expounds his philosophy; it is this narrow view that is sought to be altered when Shestov offers his refutation of the arguments that are provided by Schopenhauer.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Country Profile of France Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Country Profile of France - Article Example In 1999, France made the euro its official currency, and this has allowed France to further integrate itself into the core of the European economy. France is also playing a central role in the development of the European Union’s military (cia.gov). The seat of the French Revolution, which is the source of much of the thoughts and writing on democracy, France is now currently a republic, and it has had a mixture of a presidential and parliamentary administration since legislation was passed in 1958. The current president is Nikolas Sarkozy, and he won the election with 51% of the vote. Sarkozy is serving a five-year term as president of France. In 2000 the French constitution was amended in order to change the term of the presidency from seven years to five years (cia.gov) In size, France is slightly smaller in area than the state of Texas with 260,558 square mileage. This figure includes all of its territories overseas and including its claim in Antarctica. This makes it the largest European nation, just slightly ahead of Spain in total size (cia.gov) France has always been central to scientific development. For example, France was home to Marie and Pierre Curie who are famous for their theories and work on radioactivity. In more recent scientific efforts, France is among the leaders in various fields, including mathematics, astrophysics, biology, medicine, genetics, and physics. To put this in perspective, it should be mentioned that French scientists have been awarded a total of twenty-six Nobel prizes over the past ninety years (francethisway.com) There are many research institutions throughout France. Some of these include the National Centre for Scientific Research, the National Institute for Health and Medical Research, and the National Institute for Agronomical Research. The institutions are public research institutions.  

Global M Commerce Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Global M Commerce - Essay Example Other mobile commerce products and services that are available in various countries includes mobile ATM, mobile ticketing, location based services, mobile banking and mobile advertising among others. Apart from US, other developing and developed countries such as Canada, the UK, France, Germany, Japan, S. Korea, China, Australia and Brazil have adopted mobile commerce as a way of developing their business activities. This paper aims at discussing the use of mobile commerce in UK and particularly mobile advertising. Mobile advertising refers to use of mobile devices to market goods and services. Major advantage of mobile advertising as compared to the traditional forms of marketing is that consumers can make instant decisions. Once they receive the short marketing message, the consumers can within seconds make a decision to purchase. In terms of size, the UK economy is the sixth largest in the world. With a population of approximately 54 million people, UK service sector is much developed thus making it to contribute significantly to the country’s gross domestic product. The country’s GDP stands at 2.5 trillion While the GDP growth rate as indicated in the first quarter on 2014 stands at 0.8% which is the same as 3.4% annual rate. UK labour force stands at 30.50 million with majority of the workers being employed in the services industry. As the result of technological development especially in the telecommunication sector, UK has embarked on the use of mobile phones to improve the way business activities are undertaken. The telecommunication industry significantly and value to the UK economy just like the storage and transport sector. For example, in 2011, the telecommunication sector added a value of  £25,098 million while the storage and transport sector contributed  £59,179 million. Just like other developed countries such as US and Japan, UK firms have

Friday, August 23, 2019

Ethics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1

Ethics - Essay Example However, as much as the nurse’s role is to his/her patient, the nurse also has a significant duty to protect and work well with the other members of the health care team. As member of the healthcare team, the nurse is expected to defend and protect those that belong in the same profession she is in, provided that such an individual is in the side of what is right. Indeed, with this camaraderie and sense of kinship, a nurse feels indignation in witnessing an injustice towards a fellow nurse, even though the nurse does not know the said persecuted individual. However, an issue then rises when principles of ethics are compromised for the sake of that camaraderie. For example, nurses are sometimes asked to cover up inefficiencies and mistakes, just to protect another nurse or even another doctor. During these times, the nurse is then faced with a major ethical dilemma, especially in cases where a patient suffered tremendous loss. An example of this ethical problem is when an impai red physician commits a mistake and asks a nurse to overlook the said mistake. The doctor’s impairment can be caused by a lot of reasons, but the most common of which is advanced age, or physical injuries caused by accidents and similar occurrences. In these times, the nurse is then divided between her duty to her patients, and her duty to the other members of the health care team, such as the physician: she could either report the physician or she could remain quiet about a certain incident. If the nurse carries out the former, this may lead to the revocation of the physician’s license, but at least the nurse was honest and she can have some sort of peace in her mind. However, if she performed the latter and remained silent, the patient may never have justice, but at the same time, the grieving family may find peace and closure a lot more difficult to achieve if they found that the doctor had a fault in the death of their loved one. This ethical dilemma bears with it a lot of possible impacts on the practice nurse, the patient, the patient’s family, and even society itself. For the nurse, protecting a fellow health professional would compromise the care received or to be received by the patient. However, if negligence was revealed, unity, trust and coordination within the healthcare team may be compromised (Diaz & Stamp, 2004), which can also put the patient at risk for further harm or damage. The first scenario may also place the community at a great risk for negligence and incompetence in the hands of an impaired doctor. In relation, this paper will then elaborate on this ethical dilemma, as well as appropriate courses of action that the nurse may take in coming up with a decision. This paper will first discuss the ethical principles involved in the case presented above, and a discussion of the role of the advanced practice nurse will follow. Afterwards, a literature review of studies exploring the said topic will be conducted, and ethi cal decision-making will be performed in order to be able to solve the problem by using the ethical decision making theory. More importantly, this paper will attempt to prove that when a nurse is faced with the need to decide whether to report an impaired physician or not, she should opt most of all to protect the patient and report the physic

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Prejudice vs Discrimination Essay Example for Free

Prejudice vs Discrimination Essay Typewrite a 1 ? to 2 page paper comparing and contrasting prejudice and discrimination. Relate the use of stereotyping and racial profiling to prejudice and discrimination. Merriam-Websters Dictionary defines prejudice and discrimination as: Prejudice (1) : injury or damage resulting from some judgment or action of another in disregard of ones rights; especially : detriment to ones legal rights or claims (2) a. (1) : preconceived judgment or opinion (2) : an adverse opinion or leaning formed without just grounds or before sufficient knowledge b : an instance of such judgment or opinion c : an irrational attitude of hostility directed against an individual, a group, a race, or their supposed characteristics. Discrimination (1) a. : the act of discriminating b : the process by which two stimuli differing in some aspect are responded to differently (2) : the quality or power of finely distinguishing (3) a. : the act, practice, or an instance of discriminating categorically rather than individually b : prejudiced or prejudicial outlook, action, or treatment The main distinction between prejudice and discrimination is found in Michael LeMays definition of discrimination, where he says Discrimination is applied prejudice. As in the definition above, prejudice is some preconceived notion about an individual, a group, or a race that demonstrate some sort of judgment upon them. This idea of prejudice is usually kept inside of the individual, so as to have a quiet judgment among people. Discrimination, however, is prejudice put into practice. Those who discriminate actively practice prejudice; it is no longer kept inside, but rather openly practiced against the people. Prejudice is best described as an attitude towards a certain group of peoples based solely on their membership in that social or ethnic group, whereas discrimination are actions taken against those members, the behavioral manifestation of prejudice. The practices of prejudice and discrimination stem from an individuals perception of a certain group ?these predetermined perceptions of a group usually come from stereotypes of a people, or racial profiling. LeMays definition of stereotypes is this: Oversimplistic and Overexaggerated beliefs about a group, most often acquired second hand. These images are highly resistant to change. Stereotyping often derive from social categorization and the idea of ? in group vs. ?out group. Social categorizations is sort of the lumping or classification of people into groups based on common characteristics among them, while the concept of the ? in group versus the ? out group is based on a ? we vs. ?they view, by Peter Rose. The difference between the two is that in social categorization, the person removes themself from their judgment, whereas in the ? we vs. ?they approach, the person is included among others in their judgment, but those judged are not part of their own majority group. This process of thought views ? we in favorable terms, and ? they negatively. The impact of stereotypes, as I have stated, directly affect the perceptions of a people in a negative light; when we think of those people, these traits come to mind ? when we meet people from this group, we will focus more on those traits and process them before others. Stereotyping affects our social judgments about a group of people: how much we like the person, our mood and attitudes toward the person, as well as our expectations from that person. Racial profiling is not much off from the principles of stereotyping. Racial profiling is the use of race as a consideration in suspect profiling or other law enforcement practices. This ties into stereotyping in that we suspect suspicious activity from a particular race or people based solely on their ethnicity. A common example of racial profiling would be DWB or driving while black. This is the practice of police or other law enforcement officers targeting African Americans for traffic stops because they believe that African Americans are more likely to be engaged in criminal activity (racial profiling, www. ethnicmajority. com). Overall, one could say that one instance leads to another. Stereotyping can lead to prejudice, which can lead to discrimination. Stereotyping fuels prejudice, though people are not willing to admit this ? they will not admit to stereotyping or being prejudiced, nor discriminating, yet all practices and beliefs of these are rampant today.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Petrochemical Industry And Chemical Engineering Engineering Essay

Petrochemical Industry And Chemical Engineering Engineering Essay Petrochemical industry is being chosen as our main topic for the introduction to Chemical Engineering assignment. Petrochemical is the second level products being derived from crude oil after several refining processes. These chemicals are typically extracted during the refining process as  crude oil  and gas are distilled or cracked, and they can be utilized in a wide variety of ways. Petrochemical can be used to manufacture PVC. PVC is one of the oldest synthetic materials in industrial production.  Ã‚  Its early history is of multiple and accidental discovery in different places at different times as well as unsuccessful quests for commercial application. During the 1950s PVC is produced by a lot of companies and it volumes increased radically around the world. PVC products swiftly became vital to the construction industry; since it is resistance to light, chemicals and good in prevent corrosion, therefore, it is the best option to be used in building applications. Few more years later, Improvement is made toward the materials resistance to extreme temperatures, so that water can be transported to thousands of homes and industries through PVC. PVC is multipurpose and since PVCs has a lower cost than others, it good in durability and process ability to be used in industries therefore, it is fully utilize in health care, IT, transport, textiles and construction. In the polymerization process, the process for making PVC consists taking the simplest unit, which name as monomer, and linking these monomer molecules together. In order to create a compound that meets the requirement of the end product and of the processing technology to be used,  different additives such as plasticizers and stabilizers are added to PVC resin. Importance of Petrochemical Industry in Our Society The petrochemical industry is a complex industry that affects all spheres of life. Most items used in everyday life such as plastic products and soaps owe their existence to petrochemicals. The petrochemical industry connects downstream sectors such as pharmaceuticals with the upstream oil and gas industry.   The petrochemical industry converts feed stocks such as naphtha and natural gas components such as butane, ethane and propane through steam cracking or catalytic cracking into petrochemical building blocks such as olefins and aromatics. While olefins include ethylene, propylene, methanol and C4 stream such as butadiene, aromatics include benzene, toluene and xylene. The petrochemicals of commercial importance in the petrochemical industry include ethylene, propylene, benzene and xylene. These petrochemical building blocks are further processed to yield final products such as paints, polyester and plastics. Take ethylene for instance. It is processed into ethyl benzene, ethylen e oxide, ethylene dichloride, ethyl alcohol, acetaldehyde and polyethylene. These undergo further transformation to yield a wide range of products such as tyres, detergents, agrochemicals and plastic products. Originally, most plastics were made from the resins of plant matter. But it wasnt long before plastics were developed from petrochemicals. The packaging industry, the leading user of plastics, accounts for about one-third of total U.S. production. The building industry ranks second, which uses plastic to make  insulation, moulding, pipes, roofing, siding, and frames for doors and windows. Other industries, including automobile and truck manufacturing, also rely heavily on plastics. The United States was hardly alone in its rising use of petroleum products. Throughout the world, increased industrialization and rapid population growth created new and greater demands for oil. By the late 1950s, petrochemicals became one of the largest industries, and control over the sources and transportation of oil became a major national and international political issue. The Supply and Demand The raw material used for the production Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) is Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM). Naphtha, which refers to a several different liquid mixtures of hydrocarbon, is the major feed stock used for the production of VCM. The global VCM supply capacity in the year 2009 was 40.0 million tons which 50.8 % of it is based on Naphtha as feedstock. 27.2 % of the global capacity was based on Natural gas for feedstock followed by 17.2% by coal while only 4.7 % of the global capacity was based on other feed stocks. In terms of region oriented, Asia- Pacific had the largest production capacity in 2009 with 18.1 million tons of production which stands 45.1% of the market share followed by Europe with a production capacity of 10.4 million tons and a share of 25.8%. The Middle East had the capacity of 2.0 million tons and a share of 5.2% while South and Central America were closely behind with 1.6 million tons of production capacity with a share of 3.9%. Based on the report Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) Global Dynamics to 2020, global VCM demand in the year 2000 was 20.7 million tons and it grew at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.8% from the year 2000 to 2009 in which the demand in the latter year had reached 29 million tons. The report has also indicates that there will be increase in demand of VCM with growth of are a CAGR of 5.4% from 2009 to 2020. This means if the reports expectation is correct, the demand of VCM this year will be 32 million tones and by the year 2020, the demand will be reaching 50 million tones. Out of the 29 million tons of VCM demand in the year 2009, Asia-Pacific has the highest demand in the industry with 16.4 million tons with a major share of 56.4%. The North America had a demand of 5.9 million tons and its share was 20.3% while Europe had a VCM demand of 4.8 million tons, followed by South and Central America with demand of 1.2 million tons. The demand share owned by Europe was 16.5% while 4.1% of demand market share is occupied by South and Central America. The Middle East had a demand of only mere 0.8 million tons along with demand share of only 2.7%. In conclusion, we can see that the major demand of VCM is in Asia Pacific and this is also where the production capacity of VCM is highest in a region around the world. Hence, we can conclude that the production capacity is usually closely related to the demand of the region. Prospect of the industry The production of PVC is a chemical industry. To be more specific, it is a synthetic material industry. It is considered a segment of overall chemical industry with manufacturers representing 20% of chemical industry. The plastic industry, which manufacturing of PVC is, stands around 70% of the whole synthetic material industry which also includes rubber and manmade fibres. The production of PVC requires a lot of process which in turn will require a big plant for the manufacturing as well as storing. The manufacturing process is complex which requires an expertise in the field. Hence, the industry requires the skill and knowledge of a chemical engineer to maintain the plant as well as solving problem that exists within the manufacturing process. Besides, transportation of raw materials is also needed to be coordinated by the manufacturer to lower to cost to yield more profit. From the supply and demand perspectives, both of it is growing from year to year basis which is thoroughly discussed at Supply and Demand section. The reason to the increase in demand is due to the usage of this PVC material, mainly in piping but also diversify to other utilities like plastic for manufacturing of table lamp. On the other hand , the supply of raw material increases due to the demand. The industry plays an important role to the consumer in providing them the product as well as to the economy in making profit and providing jobs opportunity. Impact on the Environment During the manufacturing of PVC process, wastes such as production residue sand installation waste which give impact on the environment will be released out. vinyl chloride monomer is used to produce the  polymer  polyvinyl chloride  (PVC). VCM can be a carcinogen, can cause a rare form of cancer which known as angiosarcoma. Excluding its flammability potential at release, VCM quickly dissipates posing slight threat to human health in form of diluted form and quickly degenerates when exposed to normal daylight as in the open atmosphere. During the polymerization process, basically all of the VCM is changed into the inert polymer chains that form the PVC plastic. The possibility of residual unpolymerised VCM to stay on in the polymer and eventually transfer into food from PVC packaging is high. Some of the liquid  petroleum  hydrocarbon  will be released into the environment like the  ocean  or  coastal waters due to human activity, and is a form of  pollution. In case the balance of ecosystem will be affected. In the process, the combustion of fossil fuels produces greenhouse gases and other air pollutants as by-products. In Addition, oil spill is a release of a petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to manufacturing PVC process. In other to reduce the impact on the environment, an capable waste management system will reduce the not being re-used and make the most of the use of economically and environmentally rational recovery schemes. Step of Incineration with Energy Recovery can be taken. Oil that used in PVC production can be utilised as a minimum twice, Incorporating PVC consumer products can be under controlled and reduces the amount of PVC going to landfill and reduces the pollutions. The modern incinerators are equipped with pollution control equipment and run to the highest standards therefore it can help to minimise the release of emissions to the environment. In addition,  mechanical and feedstock recycling can implemented Moreover, anything of the PVC recovery process, residual fraction of waste is contained which not recyclable. Controlled landfill still remains a disposal option in the limited fraction. The consumer product which containing PVC presence in landfill does not constitute a major risk to the environment is confirmed by finding of independent studies. .   Processes how PVC is manufactured (Electrolysis, Chlorination VCM Cracker) 1. Electrolysis: Electrolysis is a method of using electric current to drive a non-spontaneous chemical reaction. In the production of the PVC, chlorine is produced by separating the chlorine and sodium ions of a salt brine using the method of electrolysis. The electrolysis of salt brine will produce hydrogen gas and chlorine gas. 2 Chlorination: Chlorination is the process of adding chlorine into ethene to produce ethylene chloride also commonly known as vinyl chloride. The chlorine is from the process of electrolysis of brine salt from previous process. In chlorination , chlorine is added to ethene to replace two H atom from the molecule without breaking the double bond in ethene to produce 1,2-dichloroethane. Iron (III) is used as catalyst in the process.   CH2=CH2 + Cl2 > ClCH2CH2Cl   3 Thermal cracking (VCM Cracker): The main purpose of this process is to obtain the chloroethene also known as VCM. This is done because VCM couldnt be obtained by simple chlorination of ethene. Hence, this process is carried out to removed one atom of chlorine from 1,2-dichloroethane as well as recovering the carbon-carbon double bond to obtain VCM. Basically the process is being carried out with condition of 500  °C with pressure ranging from 15 atm to 30 atm. Under that condition, 1,2-dichloroethane decomposes to produce chloroethene (VCM) and hydrogen chloride.   ClCH2CH2Clà ¢Ã¢â‚¬  Ã¢â‚¬â„¢CH2=CHCl+HCl (Prepared by Lim Chung Kin, 0902959) (4 Quenching, 5 cooling water ,6 purification) Cracking furnace effluent must be quenched, or cooled rapidly, to keep coking at a minimum. Therefore, the hot effluent gases are typically quenched and partially condensed by direct contact with cold EDC in a quench tower. Alternatively, the hot effluent can first be cooled by heat exchange with cold liquid EDC furnace feed or by vaporizing boiler feed water (BFW) to produce high pressure steam in a transfer line exchanger (TLX) prior to entering the quench tower. This arrangement saves energy by decreasing the amount of fuel needed to fire the cracking furnace and/or steam needed to vaporize the feed. Then it will undergo the Purification process. Water elimination in a VCM purification system is achieved through on condition that a separation of a liquid mixture which consist of water, hydrogen chloride, and vinyl chloride into a hydrogen chloride distillate stream and an essentially pure vinyl chloride product stream in distillation column; and a drying system is placed in fluid communication with the distillation column midsection at a connection point where the water reached sufficient concentration so that a water functional mass transfer flux from a withdrawn midsection stream into a drying agent is provided. The temperature control in this column achieves EDC-water separation control. The VCM produced in the pyrolysis section is separated in the VCM purification section. In the HCL column, temperature control is used to distil HCL off the top of the mixed feed containing mainly EDC, VCM and HCL. The bottom product is fed to the VCM column, where the temperature is controlled to purify VCM as overhead product and the recovered EDC is recycled back to the EDC purification section After the VCM purification process, it is ends up in the feed to the oxychlorination process. If acetylene is allowed to enter the oxychlorination reactor, the acetylene would be readily converted to perchloroethylene and other heavily chlorinated by-products, resulting in a significant HCL efficiency loss. Consequently, the HCL recycle stream is usually passed through a hydrogenation reactor to selectively convert the acetylene to ethylene, which makes more EDC downstream. Hydrogenation is generally carried out in a fixed bed reactor packed with catalyst made from a precious metal on an inert support. Hydrogen is added to the feed in stoichiometric excess to ensure conversion of acetylene to ethylene. The reaction is temperature dependant, with lower temperatures being preferable to maximize conversion to ethylene. If the temperature is too high, a fraction of the acetylene may be further hydrogenated to ethane. (Prepared by Hew She Luan, 0905291) (Stripping, Centrifuging, Drying and Sieving Process) 7. Stripping: In all of the processes used to produce PVC, unreacted VCM is present at the end of the reaction. VCM is a carcinogenic substance and its removal from PVC is very important for both avoiding downstream emission and for recycle purpose. Superheated steam is injected into the polymerization product in the reactor. The steam causes unreacted VCM to vaporize making it easy to remove. The temperature of the steam injected into the polymerization product should be 180 while the pressure should be 10 bar. 8. Centrifuging: During this step, PVC is separated from VCM. The water to the inlet of the centrifuge is filtered to prevent PVC from being contaminated by impurities in the water. Nexis T filters rated at 10m are recommended to filter the water. 9. Drying: Most of the water is removed when the slurry passes through the centrifuge. A damp cake of polymer leaves the centrifuge and is conveyed into the fluid bed dryer. Here, the remaining water contained in the porous grains evaporates as a stream of heated air bubbles through the polymer powder. In order to minimize the emissions, the moist air is wet-scrubbed before discharge into the atmosphere.    10. Sieving: After the drying process, the PVC will go through sieving process where the PVC is separate into different sizes for further processing. (Prepared by Cody Yip Jun Kit, 10UEB00894) (Storage and Handling, Control Room and Polymerization) 11. Storage and Handling VCM must be stored in a tightly closed container in a cool, well ventilated area, away from direct sunlight, heat and incompatible materials .VCM can be stored in steel tanks at ambient temperature. The drums must be equipped with self closing valves, flame arresters and pressure vacuum. Consider installation of leak detection and alarm for storage and use area. VCM should not be stored below ground level. 12. Control Room A Control Room is the room where pumps, fans, blowers, mixers, mills and centrifuges are controlled by variable speed drives and soft starters. Minicomputers are used to control chemical reactors in the PVC production process. Computer control can bring advantages to a batch process, closer control of the process, major gains in safety and the opportunity to use larger, more efficient processing equipment. Under manual control, a polymerization cycle might take about 14 hours but computer control can cut this time to about 8 hours. Computer control also offers substantial gains in accuracy and safety. A typical computer controlled reactor stands about six stories tall and hold 30,000 to 50,000 gallons. While in manually controlled plants, each reactors capacity is between 2,000 and 7,000 gallons. Computer control enables PVC plants to meet new OSHA standards, effective April 1, 1976, that will limit the exposure of workers to VCM vapors. VCM vapor is a known human carcinogen. If inhaled or absorbed through the skin, it may be harmful. VCM vapors may be a reproductive hazard. 13. Polymerization The process of polymerization links together the vinyl chloride molecules to form chains of PVC. The PVC produced in this way is in the form of a white powder. This is not used alone, but blended with other ingredients to give formulations for a wide range of products.   In the polymerization process practically all of the VCM is processed into the inert polymer chains that make up the PVC plastic. It is possible for extremely low levels of any residual depolymerised VCM to remain in the polymer and eventually migrate into food from PVC packaging, but only at levels. Polymerization of PVC is divided into 2 types which is emulsion polymerization and suspension polymerization. Emulsion polymerization involves the polymerization of monomers in an aqueous medium containing surfactant and a water soluble initiator, producing PVC lattices. PVC lattices are colloidal dispersions of spherical particles, ranging in size between 0.1 and 3.0 ÃŽÂ ¼m. Most PVC lattices are spray dried and then milled to obtain fine powders, made up of agglomerates of latex particles. When mixed with plasticizers they disperse readily to form stable suspensions. During mixing most of the agglomerates are broken down into the original latex particles. Such dispersion of fine particles in plasticizers are known as plastisols or pastes, and the powder is called dispersion or paste polymer. The surfactant layer around the particle surface prevents their adsorbing the plasticizer at room temperature so they can be used as liquids and may then be spread on to fabric or other subs trates, poured on molds, or deposited on formers to produce flooring, wall covering, artificial leather, balls, toys, or protective gloves. There are other grades of PVC polymers, produced by emulsion polymerization, that do not form plastisols and that are used as blends with suspension PVC grades for extrusion application or in the manufacture of battery separator plates. These so-called emulsion polymers are of only minor economic interest. Sales in latex form are very limited; lattices are used in water-based paints, printing inks, and impregnated fabrics. (Prepared by A. Srinyanavel 0904742) (Packing and dispatch, compounding, converting and recycling) 14. Packing dispatch: In this process, soft PVC is packed on a semi-automatic snaking machine or manually, depending on the size, shape, and length and intended use of final product. The length of the roll cut on a stumble varies for fix packages form 10m to 100 m. However, other lengths are also obtainable upon appeal. Rolls are provided with 3 binding strips and marked with markets badges. Some soft PVC sizes are packed into polyethylene foil to provide appropriate security against incidental scratch or corrosion of their functionality. 15. Compounding: This process involves storage, conveying, metering, mixing, and cooling. All these operations occur prior to the actual melt compounding. The distribution becomes harder because the filler loading level is increased and the surface area of the mineral filler increases. The surface area increases rapidly due to the particle size decreases. These are important steps in the process that can affect the quality of PVC. If these requirements are not met completely, the final products physical properties will be affected. 16. Converting: This process is either makes final PVC products for sale or makes components for further uses. Different additives like stabilisers and plasticisers need to be added to PVC resin to create a compound that meets the requirement of the final product and of the processing technology to be used. Compounding may be carried out by the converters or by separate compounders who supply ready-made blends prepared for processing. The PVC compound is then converted by processes such as extrusion, moulding and calendaring. 17.Recycling: Polyvinyl Chloride can be reused; however the purity of the material tends to degrade with each time of reuse cycle. In addition, the separation of the different additives and compounds forming the plastic makes recycle a difficult process. The biggest problem with PVC recycling is that it is difficult to automate the sorting of plastic waste, and so it is labor-intensive. There are three ways of PVC recycling: mechanical recycling, mechanical recycling for mixed plastics and feedstock recycling. (Prepared by Cheah Kai Mun, 0904128) Role of chemical engineer in petrochemical industry Beneath all of the general responsibilities listed above, a petrochemical engineer must engage in numerous specific duties on a daily basis. The first duty which the petrochemical engineer is responsible for completing is research. The petrochemical engineer must take careful steps to ensure that what they are looking to manufacture and how they are looking to manufacture a product is the right avenue to pursue. The way to resolve this issue is by doing a lot of research on a variety of topics relating to petrochemical engineering. The petrochemical engineer is also responsible for designing a variety of items and this is a very important duty which they must complete. A petrochemical engineer must design various items such as measurement and control systems, petrochemical manufacturing equipment and petrochemical manufacturing processes. This is a major duty on the part of the petrochemical engineer and one which must be carried out with preciseness at all levels and stages.   A petrochemical engineer must also engage in a wide array of analyses. The things which the petrochemical engineer must analyze include test data, engineering design, design problems and research findings. The petrochemical engineer must take painstaking measures to adequately analyze these items as the outcome of the project could very well depend on the analysis which is undertaken by the petrochemical engineer.   One who is an engineer must develop certain procedures and policies as well so that there will be smooth operations all the way around the board. Various procedures and policies such as safety procedures, data tables and employment policies may all be in the hands of the petrochemical engineer. A senior level petrochemical engineer will have more to do with regard to developing policies and procedures within the company orcorporation.   The preparation of multiple reports is also in the hands of the petrochemical engineer. The petrochemical engineer must prepare data which specifically details the findings of certain tests and evaluations. These reports can be text or tables depending on the type of report which is needed.   A petrochemical engineer will also deal with other individuals a great deal. The reason for doing so is to relay the results and findings as well as oversee other petrochemical engineers and related workers in their field. From time to time, petrochemical engineers must lecture to their peers and the general public regarding their job and role in society. The Skills/Knowledge required by the engineer In the oil and natural gas industry such as PVC manufacturing industry, the Petrochemical Engineer is playing a important role. With all the products derived from crude oil it is practically impossible to imagine a world without them.   Act as a petrochemical engineer, several skills and knowledge are needed. Petrochemical engineers should be expert in analytical things. They need constantly putting their creativity to work, efficiently and on a large scale, transforming combinations of elements of matter, synthesizing new materials.  Besides, it is important to determine the most effective processes for normal production. For example, Design and develop newest and enhanced processes and equipment for converting the raw materials into products by using computers to simulate and control such processes. Other than that, creative and innovative thinking with excellent problem solving skills is important to a petrochemical engineer. In order to have an organized and high quality products being designed, engineers should always troubleshoot environmental problems in industrial processing and manufacturing plants. Just in the same way, efficient, safe and environmentally responsible plant operations needed to be ensured. Moreover, planning, organizing, and prioritizing tasks skills across multiple projects are needed by an engineer. They acquire excellent both spoken and written, communication skills, and cooperate well in teams with people from different backgrounds and disciplines. Engineers, technicians, supervise technologists, and other involved in related activities. Additionally, participates aggressively in new product introduction are motivated, including influencing the design of the product to ensure manufacturability and quality conformance, testing the dependability of prototypes and managing the alteration into production.   Applying mathematical and scientific principles are needed too. Some of the processes such as catalytic cracking is developed by Petrochemical engineers to break down the complex organic molecules found in crude oil into much simpler molecules. Conclusion In a nutshell, chemical engineers need to possess skills, knowledge and experience in order to make the conversion of raw materials that enter the reactor into a useful product that leaves the reactor a success as well as minimizing the damage done to the environment. PVC production is still in demand worldwide even though everyone realizes that PVC takes a long time to decompose. However, the production of PVC will not be stopped as other industries still rely on plastics to manufacture or to pack their products. The industrial method to produce PVC involves 17 processes according to our group research and among the 17 processes some actually emit harmful materials or gases as a byproduct that causes damage to the environment. However, these processes must be made as environmentally friendly as possible to produce PVC without damaging the environment.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Degradation of Blood Sourced Dna on Knives

Degradation of Blood Sourced Dna on Knives Persistence of DNA: An examination of degradation of blood sourced DNA on knives, by household substances and the forensic implications A  review of relevant and current peer-reviewed literature Contents (Jump to) Incidence of homicides Knife crime Forensic presumptive tests Phenolphthalein and Leucomalachite False positives Luminol Luminol variations False positives DNA qPCR Singleplex Multiplex RFLP STRs LCN Advancing techniques Forensic Markers General Household Cleaners Bleaches Detergent All-purpose cleaner Anti-Bacterial disinfectant Similar studies Research project outline References Figures Figure 1. Incidence of homicide victims and accused 2003-2013 Tables Table 1.  Homicide figures and methods of killing from 2003-2013 Table 2.  Homicide methods in Lothian and Borders 2006-11 Abbreviations CODIS – Combined DNA index system DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid LCN Low copy number LMG – Leucomalachite green PCR – Polymerase chain reaction qPCR – Real time Polymerase chain reaction RFLP –Restriction fragment length polymorphisns SGM – Second generation multiplex STR – Short tandem repeat Often after an assault with a weapon, i.e. a stabbing or murder, attempts are made to clean and or dispose of the weapon used. The most readily available weapon is a knife, whether the attack is pre-planned or ‘spur of the moment’, knifes are easily available to buy and are also, part and parcel with every household i.e. kitchen. Incidence of homicides Incidences of homicide in Scotland are at the lowest point for ten years, having dropped from 109 in 2003 to 62 in 2013, as seen in Figure 1. Fig 1. Incidence of homicide victims and accused 2003-2013 (ScotGov, 2013) Table 1. Homicide figures and methods of killing from 2003-2013 (ScotGov, 2013) Table 1 shows that homicide using a sharp instrument is the most common method, at the highest point in 2010-11 was 61% and at the lowest point in 2005-06 was 35.79%. Knife crime Table 2 shows that more than half (58.2%) of the murders committed in Lothian and borders between 2006 and 2011 used a kitchen knife. Table 2. Homicide methods in Lothian and Borders 2006-11, Adapted from (Kidd, Hughes and Crichton, 2013) Forensic presumptive tests Forensic presumptive tests can be used at scenes of crimes for various reasons. They can test to see what a substance might be i.e. drugs, blood. There are various reagents available for use in the presumptive testing for the presence of blood at a crime scene, using varied types of reactions. Phenolphthalein and Leucomalachite Phenolphthalein is the main reagent used in the Kastle-Meyer presumptive test for blood. This test is mainly used one unidentifiable stains, therefore this is used upon visible (patent) samples. The Kastle-Meyer test is a catalytic method, the phenolphthalein will cause an alkaline solution to turn pink after its oxidation by peroxide when blood is present. According to (Johnston et al., 2008), it will detect blood as dilute as 1 part in 10,000. False positives There are several false positives for the test and these include according to (Virkler and Lednev, 2009) chemical oxidants and fruit and may also include vegetable peroxidases. (Garofano et al., 2006), show that the Kastle-Meyer, Phenolphthalein, test is not as sensitive to blood as Luminol, which is stated as detectable to 1 part in 10,000,000. Leucomalachite Green or LMG is another widely used catalytic method to presumptive test for blood. It works by the same principle as Kastle-Meyer with the exception of the stain being gently rubbed with filter paper containing the reagent. After no colour has developed hydrogen peroxide is again added as in Kastle-Meyer and a green colour change in this case is in indicative of the presence of Blood. Johnston et al, also state that Leucomalachite green has a sensitivity similar to that of Phenolphthalein, 1 part in 10,000. Luminol Luminol is a forensic presumptive test for latent blood, i.e. blood which cannot be seen. Crime scenes are often cleaned afterwards by the perpetrator in an attempt to hide any evidence of what had occurred. Luminol allows crime scene investigators to see the full picture at a cleaned crime scene. Webb et al, 2006, State that Luminol is known as the most sensitive of the presumptive tests currently used at crime scenes. Luminol variations According to (Patel and Hopwood, 2013) There are two more commonly used Luminol formulations. These formulations were developed by Grodsky in 1951, Luminol I, and Weber in 1961, Luminol II. Luminol I or the Grodsky formulation uses a base of sodium carbonate and sodium perborate as the oxidising agent. However Luminol II or the Weber formulation uses a base of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide as its oxidising agent. Commercial luminol products have become more readily available in the recent years and brands such as BlueStar and BlueStar Magnum and Lumiscene, have come onto the market. These products offer the advantage of being easier to prepare than the more traditional formulations. However according to (Quinones et al., 2007) The Grodsky formulation of Luminol I can have a detrimental effect on the ability to subsequently perform DNA analysis in comparison to the Weber and BlueStar alternatives. False positives Luminol’s sensitivity may be an advantage at finding the smallest drop of blood, but it is also its downfall. DNA DNA is without doubt the greatest scientific discovery of forensic use to date. PCR Akane et al., 1994 investigated the role haem from blood played in interfering with DNA and in inhibiting the polymerase chain reaction. This early study suggested that a haem-blood protein complex caused inhibition issues to the polymerase chain reaction and forwarded the investigations into a more reliable PCR technique. qPCR qPCR or real time polymerase chain reaction, RFLP RFLP or Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms STRs STRs or Short tandem repeats, are genetic markers which were first discovered in the early 1990’s. (Edwards et al., 1992) Showed that STRs were an effective tool when used for human identity testing. They showed that there were enough variation through alleles for individuals to be positively identified. STR profiling works by comparing sizes of the sample DNA STRs with standardized databased allelic ladders. New alleles are still being discovered with variations in size which may not be found in commercially available ladders. LCN (Gill et al., 2000) explain that LCN or low copy number, in a PCR amplification technique which can be applied to DNA samples with as little as Kloosterman Kersbergen, 2003, explain that ‘28 + 6’ improved efficacy of DNA sample genotyping. Their 34 cycle PCR technique instead of the normal 28 PCR cycles offered an alternative approach to genotyping forensic DNA samples, which are perhaps low quality or degraded. Low copy number analysis of DNA is not without problems. The most common issues with LCN are allelic drop-out, heterozygote imbalance, stutter peaks/products and unexpected allelic peaks. Allelic drop-out Stutter products Forensic Markers In the US a system known as CODIS is used for DNA profiling. CODIS uses 13 loci and Amelogenin. The loci used are CSF1PO, FGA, TH01, TPOX, VWA, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, and D21S11. The DNA profiling system used in the UK is SGM Plus (SGM+). This system looks at 11 different loci on different chromosomes (independent inheritance) with a large number of alleles. As well as looking at Amelogenin, the sex marker, the SGM+ includes the markers D2S1338 and D19S433 along with eight CODIS overlapping loci FGA, TH01, VWA, D3S1358, D8S1179, D16S539, D18S51, and D21S11. (Cotton et al., 2000) Validated the most recent 11 loci STR DNA analysis method for use in standard forensic casework. The technique was also validated for use in casework involving > 1ng of DNA, i.e. LCN. HUMVWFA31/A (vWA) HUMTHO1 (THO1) HUMFIBRA (FGA) General Household Cleaners If you have committed a crime, disposing or destroying of the evidence is more than likely your next step. More often than not this is problem faced by forensic scientists, that a deliberate attempt to remove any of the biological material i.e. evidence, blood, using a variety of cleaning materials. Most people store their cleaning supplies in their kitchen or bathroom, so general household cleaners are to be examined. Every household will contain basic cleaning materials such as bleaches, detergents, disinfectants and perhaps multi-cleaners. Cleaning materials not only have the ability to potentially cause contamination to of any of the surviving evidence but also to degrade any DNA which may still be present on the evidence. Degradation of the DNA will make it difficult to produce and gain a profile which could be used to link the weapon to the crime. Bleaches Bleaches can cause many problems at crime scenes, thanks to the American television show Crime Scene Investigation (CSI Las Vegas) most people will know that bleach renders the forensic presumptive blood tests pretty much useless. According to (Harris et al., 2006), Out of all the cleaning products on the market bleach also has the most harmful effect on the quality of DNA available to obtain a profile. They also state that bleach seemed to cause continued degradation of the DNA over time. Common brands of household bleaches include Domestos, Harpic, Mr Muscle, Cif and Supermarket own brands. Detergent Common brands of household detergents include Fairy, Imperial leather, Carex, Daz and Bold. Anti-Bacterial disinfectant Common brands of household anti-bacterial disinfectant include Dettol, Savlon, TCP and supermarket own brands. Similar studies Research project outline This study aims to investigate whether the knife substrate has any effect on the quantity of DNA retained on the weapon after an assault; whether deliberate attempts to remove any biological material, using a variety of household cleaning materials, affect the quality and quantity of DNA that is recoverable and if DNA is recovered from a weapon, whether it was initially detected by presumptive blood tests. The knife substrates used here were, 18† Kitchen knife and 20† Serrated kitchen knife. The household cleaning materials were as follows, Bleach (Domestos), Detergent (Fairy) and Anti-Bacterial disinfectant (Dettol). Blood samples are to be applied to the blade of each knife, it should be allowed to air dry and then cleaned until no blood or residues thereof are visible. Each knife should then again be allowed to air dry and be swabbed using a double swab technique. Each cleaning material is applied to the two different knife substrates and the pairs are numbered 3-18, with knife set 1 2 being control, the initial DNA for comparison should be swabbed before the control knifes are dried and washed with warm water only. Cleaning materials should be used according to the manufacturers’ guidelines. PCR will be performed on the extracted samples using The control samples will be used to examine which was the largest contributing factor in compromising the quality and/or quantity of the sample gained. References The Scottish Government, (2013) Statistical Bulletin, Homicide in Scotland 2012-13, {Online} Available: https://alpha.scotland.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/417/Homicide_in_Scotland_2012-13_statistical_bulletin.pdf [Accessed: 02/10/2014] Cotton, E. A., Allsop, R. F., Guest, J. L., Frazier, R. R., Koumi, P., Callow, I. P., Seager, A., and Sparkes, R. L. (2000) Validation of the AMPFlSTR SGM plus system for use in forensic casework. Forensic Sci Int. Vol.112(2-3), pp.151-61. Edwards, A., Hammond, H. A., Jin, L., Caskey, C. T., and Chakraborty, R. (1992) Genetic variation at five trimeric and tetrameric tandem repeat loci in four human population groups. Genomics. Vol.12(2), pp.241-53. Garofano, L., Pizzamiglio, M., Marino, A., Brighenti, A., and Romani, F. (2006) A comparative study of the sensitivity and specifity of luminal and fluorescein on diluted and aged bloodstains and subsequent STRs typing. International Congress Series. Vol.1288(0), pp.657-659. Gill, P., Whitaker, J., Flaxman, C., Brown, N., and Buckleton, J. (2000) An investigation of the rigor of interpretation rules for STRs derived from less than 100 pg of DNA. Forensic Sci Int. Vol.112(1), pp.17-40. Harris, K. A., Thacker, C. R., Ballard, D., and Court, D. S. (2006) The effect of cleaning agents on the DNA analysis of blood stains deposited on different substrates. International Congress Series. Vol.1288(0), pp.589-591. Johnston, E., Ames, C. E., Dagnall, K. E., Foster, J., and Daniel, B. E. (2008) Comparison of presumptive blood test kits including hexagon OBTI. J Forensic Sci. Vol.53(3), pp.687-9. Kidd, S., Hughes, N., and Crichton, J. (2013) Kitchen knives and homicide: A systematic study of people charged with murder in the Lothian and Borders region of Scotland. Med Sci Law. Vol.54(3), pp.167-173. Patel, G., and Hopwood, A. (2013) An evaluation of luminol formulations and their effect on DNA profiling. Int J Legal Med. Vol.127(4), pp.723-9. Quinones, I., Sheppard, D., Harbison, S., and Elliot, D. (2007) Comparative Analysis of Luminol Formulations. Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal. Vol.40(2), pp.53-63. Virkler, K., and Lednev, I. K. (2009) Analysis of body fluids for forensic purposes: From laboratory testing to non-destructive rapid confirmatory identification at a crime scene. Forensic Science International. Vol.188(1–3), pp.1-17.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Michael Manley and Rastafarianism Essay -- essays papers

Michael Manley and Rastafarianism Jamaica and it’s people have been involved in a constant struggle for prosperity. After gaining independence from Britain on August 6, 1962, Jamaica attempted to flourish under a democratic system of their own. The formation of the People’s National Party and the Jamaica Labor Party marked the beginning of this movement. During this time of exploration, Rastafarians residing in Jamaica were faced with little political support. Government objectives and reform were generally not concerned with the plight of the Rastafarians, and they were treated as a group of vigilantes. Michael Norman Manley, Prime Minister of Jamaica from 1972-1980 and 1989-1992, was the first political figure to provide support for the large population of Rastafarians residing in Jamaica. It was under the rule of this man that reform for the people began to take place. The following paper analyzes Manley and his influence on Jamaican society. To begin, it is important to understand some background information on Michael Norman Manley. Born to a prominent political figure, Manley attended Jamaica College in Kingston from 1935-1962. He was also in the Royal Canadian Air Force during 1939-1945. After earning a bachelor’s degree and leaving the air force, he attended the London School of Economics from 1945-1949. Hoping to explore the world, he remained in London and took a job as a journalist with the BBC. In 1952, Manley decided that he wanted to return to his homeland. Being a strong-minded individual striving for change, Manley took on the responsibility of becoming a trade union negotiator, and the president of the National Workers Union of Jamaica. He strove to provide a better life for all those who lived on Jamai... ...hat indirectly benefited Rastafarians. Sources The Politics of Change: A Jamaican Testament. Michael Manley. Howard University Press. Washington D.C. 1990. (tpoc) Democracy and Clientelism in Jamaica. Carl Stone. Transaction Books. New Brunswick, NJ. 1980. (dacij) Democratic Socialism in Jamaica: The Political Movement and Social Transformation in Dependent Capitalism. Evelyne Stephens and John Stephens. Princeton University Press. Princeton, NJ. 1986. (dsij) The Rastafarians. Leonard Barrett, Sr. Beacon Press. Boston, MA.1997. (tr) Class, State, and Democracy in Jamaica. Carl Stone. Praeger Special Studies. New York. 1986. (csadij) Reggae: The Rough Guide. Steve Barrow and Peter Dalton. Rough Guides Ltd. London, ENG. 1997. (rg) WWW.publicpurpose.com WWW.usinfo.state.gov WWW.discoverjamaica.com WWW.encarta.msn.com - online encyclopedia

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Dreams in Literature Essay examples -- Comparative, Faulkner, Hurston

The ability to dream may be uniquely human. These dreams exist with no purpose other than achievement. In many cases, a dream, not an instinct, drives human action. Certainly, dreams are central to the human life. Since one of the main purposes of literature is to reflect on that life, some dream must be included. The achievement of the dream is completely up to the author, and what his/her thoughts are on the achievement of dreams. Tennessee Williams, William Faulkner, and Zora Neale Hurston all use certain literary elements to craft their theme of the achievement of dreams, which is viewed and portrayed differently by each: grievously, by Williams; pessimistically, by Faulkner; and with a modicum of optimism by Hurston. Hardly a better adjective exists than â€Å"grievous† to describe Williams’ attitude toward dreams and their achievement in his play â€Å"The Glass Menagerie.† Williams does not treat dreams violently and harshly, but sadly and poignantly, using symbolism and stage lighting. Amanda’s jonquil dress, a momentum from days long past, is one important symbol. The revival of the dress, a remnant of Amanda’s courting days, shows the extent to which her dream of living through Laura pervades her life. The use of the â€Å"girlish† dress makes it seem as though Jim is visiting Amanda, rather than Laura, returning Amanda to her happiest days (Williams 53). The clearest and most important symbol is Laura’s glass unicorn. It represents her; its changes mirror hers. She only places the unicorn out in the open when Jim arrives, and, not completely intentionally, opens herself to him. As Laura shares her first dance with Jim, the unicorn falls, and its horn, the only thing distinguishing and separating it from the other horses, breaks off... ...shback, Hurston notes that one can help others with their dreams, and still accomplish one’s own, so long as the dreams of others do not become permanent priorities. People’s thoughts on dreams vary, and so dreams are shown in differing ways throughout literature. All three authors agree that the attainment of a dream is not guaranteed; it requires some work. From there, they use different techniques to refine their opinions. In their respective novels, Hurston offers some hope for the dreamer in humanity, while Faulkner scoffs and tells them what to do, and Williams urges them to give up while there’s still time to avoid heartache. Differing opinions such as these are found through a span of literature, and they offer comprehensive readers food for thought, and a chance to think about and form their own opinions, in this case, about the attainability of dreams.

Small Animal Diseases :: essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Louise Pasteur, a Frenchman who was neither a physician nor a veterinarian moved into the spotlight to help find a vaccine for Rabies. He began the study of Rabies when two rabid dogs were brought into his laboratory. One of the dogs suffered from the dumb form of the disease: his lower jaw hung down, he foamed at the mouth, and his eyes had a rather vacant look. The other dog was furious: he snapped, bit any object held out to him, and let out frightening howls (McCoy 65).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Through the studies already observed, rabies was transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal, and that the incubation period varied from a few days to several months. Beyond this, nothing definite was known. Then M. Bouley, a professor of veterinary science, noted a germ or organism in the saliva of a rabid dog. Pasteur confirmed Bouley’s findings by collecting some mucus from a child bitten by a rapid dog, and injecting it into rabbits. The results of this experiment ended with all the rabbits dying within 36 hours. This experiment established two facts: an organism was present in the saliva of rabid animals, and it could be transmitted to another animal or a human being through a bite (McCoy 66).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Further research led Pasteur to the conclusion that the rabies organism was located in other parts of the infected animal's body besides its saliva. Experiments on the skulls of rabid dogs shoed that the brain contained the rabies virus. Pasture then cultured some viruses from several rabid dogs' brains. The virus was then injected into rabbits. In every case the rabies would appear within 14 days (McCoy 67).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  After several experiments, Pasteur went on to perfect a rabies vaccine. He first demonstrated to physicians and veterinarians that the rabies could be cultured from the brains of living dogs. Pasteur successfully proved that his antirabies vaccine could now be safely administered and animals could be vaccinated against the disease. Once the vaccine was perfected, Pasteur turned the task of finding a vaccine for human patients. After considerable research and patients, Pasteur eventually developed a human vaccine against rabies. The vaccine would be given through a system of inculcations and would prevent the disease in a patient recently bitten by a rapid dog (McCoy 67).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This system became known as the Pasteur Treatment for rabies. Although there is still no cure for this disease in animals or humans, the disease can be prevented if the vaccines are given early enough.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Case Summary of Jamie Turner the Case Describes the Evolution

Case Summary of Jamie Turner The case describes the evolution of an interpersonal mismatch between a previously successful manager, Jamie Turner, and his new boss, Pat Cardullo. Turner, a 32 year old MBA graduate, has been recruited by Cardullo to be vice president of marketing and sales at Modern Lighting Industries, Inc. (MLI). MLI, a struggling regional distributor of industrial lighting systems and equipment based in Chicago, has recently been acquired by a division of the much larger San Diego-based Specialty Support Services (Triple S).Cardullo, the president of MLI, is the chief proponent of the Triple S acquisition, and he has told Turner to revive MLI, implying that if Turner succeeds he will soon advance to company president. It becomes apparent, however, that Cardullo and Turner have very different assumptions and expectations about turning MLI around. The case portrays Turner's developing problems and his unsuccessful attempts to resolve them, and also Cardullo's passage through several managerial challenges. Questions 1. Give a summary of the case. 2. What type of leadership style is shown in the case? 3. Pat Cardullo’s leadership style, is it right for Jamie turner? 4. Is the relationship between Pat Cardullo and Jamie turner is right? If not then give a description of the problem between their relationships. 5. What could be the solution of this problem? Give a long term solution for the future to avoid such type of problem. 6. If you are the C. E.O of the company then how you will solve the problem? * Some guidelines for report In the report you have to give a brief about the case as well as give your opinion about the problem. Mention the leadership theory shone in the case. There are also some questions to answer in the last page of the brief case. In the presentation slide you have to give a summary first. Then give the other points of the report. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Understanding Human Behaviour

UNIT 4 Objectives UNDERSTANDING HUMAN BEHAVIOUR Indian Environment: The Changing Scenario After going through this unit you should be able to understand: †¢ importance of understanding human behaviour. Structure 4. 1 4. 2 4. 3 4. 4 4. 5 4. 6 4. 7 4. 8 4. 9 4. 10 4. 11 4. 12 4. 13 4. 14 4. 15 4. 6 Introduction Models to Understand Human Behaviour Implications for the Organisation Personality Determinants of Personality Type and Trait Approaches to Personality Theories of Personality Importance of Personality Attitudes Attitudes and Organisation Values Socialisation's Influence on Personality, Values and Attitudes Schein Socialisation Model Summary Self-Assessment Questions Further Readings 4. 1 INTRODUCTION It is very essential to understand human behaviour in today's world as the existence of the organisation depends op the employees/individuals.Without understanding human behaviour it is very difficult to work in an organisation. In order to understand human behaviour let us se e how the perception of human being has changed from time to time. All organisations are composed of individuals, with different personality, attitudes, values, perception, motives, aspirations and abilities. The main reason to understand behaviour is that individuals are different. No two individuals are similar. In the early studies, theories of organisation and management treated people as though they were the same; scientific management was based on the similarities among workers, not the differences.In contrast, modern theories of human behaviour are based upon the differences among people and how those differences can affect the organisation. Individual differences are many for example some employees are motivated to work and some are not. This can be due to several reasons, and can be known by further reading the unit. Before we proceed to understand human behaviour, it is better to know what the term `behaviour' means. Behaviour can be defined as a response/s which is observ ed directly/indirectly. Direct observation is possible by studying the responses of people to a work environment.Indirect observations are decision 5 Social Processes and Issues making processes and attitudes, in terms of results or how people describe them verbally. Human behaviour is very much unpredictable. In behaviour we cannot assume one set pattern of behaviour. Lavitt classified behaviour as: (i) Caused behaviour, (ii) Motivated behaviour, (iii) Goal oriented behaviour. From these observations it can be understood that behaviour is a dependent factor. By understanding behaviour one can predict, direct, change and control behaviour of individuals or group.There are generally four basic assumptions regarding nature of people: individual differences, a whole person, caused behaviour (motivation) and value of the person (human dignity). In an organisational set up it is essential for managers to understand behaviour. as they are constantly with people, interacting with them in t erms of communication (either written or oral) in terms of work (either by specifying the work and getting things done). Understanding past behaviour is important for developing effective human skills, and it also provides a framework for predicting behaviour.It also gives an idea to managers as to how behaviour is similar in certain circumstances and changing in changing environmental conditions. Another skill which an effective manager or leader needs is the ability to direct, change and control behaviour. Managers have to understand that there are-going to be individual differences among the employees, as no individual is similar to other. Each individual is unique by themselves. Then one has to understand that each individual has to be taken care of as a whole person by taking care of. his needs as well as training and making him up to date in terms of work.Ultimately human beings have to be treated with respect only then you can expect effective performance. With the following descriptions you will be able to understand the concept better. Dan's analyses the nature of people in terms of four assumptions. 1. Individual Differences Behaviour is the result of interaction between individual characteristics and the characteristics of the environment in which the behaviour occurs. Each person has a unique combination of characteristics. Some of these characteristics are present from birth; others develop over time. These can be called as inherited and learned characteristics.Although there are some inherited Table 1: Learned Characteristics and its Effect on Behaviour Characteristics Tolerance for conflict Relative importance of Behaviour Perceived role conflict Expressed job satisfaction Relationship found Less role conflict with greater tolerance for conflict â€Å"Extrinsic Managers† expressed less job satisfaction extrinsic versus intrinsic rewards Stronger work ethic associated with greater attendance High general interest of performance diversity a ssociated with better performance More stress with emphasis on external locus of control Value or work ethicAttendance Diversity of interests Salary based measure 6 Locus of control Experienced job stress characteristics, but these are very few, and not so significant. Learned characteristics are very important. Individual differences can be because of environment, personal and psychological factors. It is also due to physical and social factors. Learned characteristics are acquired as people grow, develop and interact with their environments. This is depicted by Table 1. `Environmental factors' are characteristics of the broader environment such as economic conditions, social and. ultural norms, and political factors that can affect the individuals behaviour. Personal factors include physical and personal attributes e. g. , age, sex, race, education and abilities, psychological factors are less observable. They are mental characteristics and attributes such as values, attitudes, pe rsonality and aptitudes that affect behaviour through complex psychological processes. These are studied, in the subsequent units. All aspects of the physical world that can be seen, heard, felt, smelled or touched are part of the physical environment of behaviour.The social environment of an individual includes relationships with family, friends, co-workers, supervisors and subordinates and membership in groups such as unions. The behaviour of others (as distinct from the individuals relationship with them) is also part of an individual's social environment. Any ‘norms, rules, laws or reward systems that originate with other individuals or groups help to form an individual's social environment. 2. A Whole Person Indian Environment: The Changing Scenario When an employee works in an organisation, the organisation takes care of that person by making him effective, as a worker and as a person. . Caused Behaviour (Motivation) People's behaviour is need based. By fulfilling these needs he is motivated positively and there occurs effective performance. So the management in the organisation has to take care of these needs in order to have an effective performance. The management can show them how certain actions will increase their need fulfilment and if not; how it decreases their need fulfilment. 4. Value of the Person (Human Dignity) People have to be treated with respect and as individuals and they can not be treated like machines as how scientific management use to treat them.By recognising them and treating them with uniqueness the value of the person gets increased. By this we can understand how the concept of treating human beings from machines to human capitals have evolved. If one accepts the fact that human skill development is necessary then managers and leaders must have necessary understanding in order to influence the behaviour of other people. It was felt that the managers acquire three levels of expertise. Firstly they have to understand the p ast and current behaviour, so that they are able to predict behaviour and than they learn to direct change, and control behaviour. . 2 MODELS TO UNDERSTAND HUMAN BEHAVIOUR Early classical approaches made the assumptions that people are naturally lazy and self-serving, neutral, or positive and self-motivated. In simpler terms they need to be pushed and controlled and kept under surveillance, never to be trusted to put in a good day's work by themselves. Economic rewards were the only one considered, and close autocratic supervision was suggested. Systems and contingency theorists viewed people as adaptable and felt that much of behaviour was learned and not attributable to predispositions to be negative or positive. Social Processes and Issues Likert, Mc Gregor and Bennis who developed and extended the findings of humanrelations theorists had a positive view of human nature. Employees were seen as striving for personal and social well-being. If left alone, they would work hard for th e intrinsic satisfaction of a job well done- The emphasis was on democratic decision making and leadership. Jobs were to be challenging and allowed the individual employee to be creative. Models of Human Behaviour Psychoanalytic Model: Freudian approach depends on conflict model of humans.By using clinical techniques of free association and psychotherapy Freud felt that behaviour is not always consciously explained. â€Å"Unconscious† is the major factor which guides the individual's behaviour. Freud felt that the individual's behaviour depends on three factors: (i) id, (ii) Ego and (iii) Super ego. Id: By Id it means pleasure. To certain degree of having Id in an individual is constructive but may also lead to destructive tendencies like being aggressive, dominating, fighting and generally destroy. This kind of instinctive is more dominating in childhood.But once individuals develop and mature they learn to control the id. But it is always unconscious. Throughout life the `i d' becomes important source of thinking and behaving. Ego: Ego represents `conscious' stage in one's behaviour. Though Id comes in conflict with ego, the ego depends on the super ego. Superego: It represents â€Å"conscience†. An individual is not aware of the superego's functioning. The conscience is dependent on two factors that is cultural values and moral of a society. Superego's development depends mostly on parent's influence.Once the child grows up the child will unconsciously identifies with parents value and morals. There is always tussle between id, ego and superego. The degree of each of them varies from person to person. So the variations in individual's behaviour can be better understood with the help of this model. But the modern theories have severely criticised this theory as it is not based on any empirical facts and as such it can not be accepted in totality. But the concept of â€Å"unconscious† is a significant contribution in understanding specific behaviour of humans. Existential Model: This model is not scientifically based.It's base is literature and philosophy. The existentialists believe that the depersonalising effects of this environment forces individuals to make their own destiny. So the individuals shape their own identity and make their â€Å"existence† meaningful and worthwhile to themselves. This is more true and happening in today's urbanisation. Because people have become so materialistic and busy, they do not have time for traditional values and norms and it becomes impractical sometimes to follow them. Existential model is, especially true when you are employed in today's world.Though this model is not scientific it can be definitely be used in understanding human behaviour. Internal vs. External Determinants of Behaviour Environment plays a major role in shaping behaviour and genetic endowment and personality development is influenced by our historical heritage. 8 Personality vs the Environment Both p ersonality and situational variables must be taken into account in order to explain an individual's behaviour but a focus on the environment is as important or perhaps slightly more important than focusing on personality traits.Indian Environment: The Changing Scenario Cognition vs the Environment To understand one's behaviour all we have to know is the individual's past responses to similar (stimulus) situations and the rewards or punishments that followed that response. There are two models which come out of these approaches: 1. Behaviouristic Model: In this model the behaviour is dependent on two factors i. e. , stimulus and response. Learning occurs with this kind of model. Pavlov and Watson with their research felt that behaviour can be best understood by stimulus and response.Behaviourist model is represented as: S – R (Stimulus-Response) 2. Cognitive Model: S-OR-R. This model emphasises the positive and free-will factors of human beings and uses concepts such as expect ancy, demand and incentive. Tolman with his experiments found that the basis of learning as of `expectancy' which is understood as one particular event leading to a particular consequence i. e. , goal. Human behaviour is based on these goals. The cognitive model is represented as: S – O – R (Stimulus-Organism-Response model) Both approaches see learning and the environment as having a major impact on behaviour.From these different approaches it can be said that: i) Behaviour is caused by instincts, genetic background and personality traits that are formed at an early age. Change is very difficult for the individual and that one's capacity is severely limited. Behaviour is mostly learned through our interactions with the environment. Present events rather than past events are important. Even though there are some limitations on. one's capacities, one is capable of great amounts of change. ii) 4. 3 IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ORGANISATION Behviour of individuals is caused, and follows a pattern, because of this, behaviour is unpredictable.Study of behaviour is however, rewarding and necessary for management. It is doubtful whether the manager can perform his tasks satisfactorily without developing a fair degree of understanding of the people around him. Any attempt to learn why people behave as they do in organisations requires some understanding of individual differences. Managers spend considerable time making judgements about the fit between individuals, job tasks and from these approaches it can be concluded that there is an overwhelming consensus that the, environment has a much greater effect than it is believed.The implications for organisations are important. It means that large areas of human behaviour are modifiable. Organisational design, training and development can have a profound impact on the behaviour of the members of an organisation. 9 Social Processes and Issues 4. 4 PERSONALITY Gordon Allport defined Personality as the dynamic organisa tion within the individual of those Psycho-Physical Systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment. Personality can be described more specifically as â€Å"how a person affects others, how he understands and views himself and his pattern of inner and outer measurable traits. From this definition, it can be understood one's physical appearance and behaviour affects others. Understanding oneself means one is unique with a set of attitudes and values and a self-concept. Finally, the pattern of measurable traits refers to a set of characteristics that the person exhibits. Some of the other definitions are â€Å"Personality is a vehicle to integrate perception, learning, values and attitudes and thus to understand the total person. † â€Å"Personality is an individual's total sense of self, it is an organising force for the persons particular pattern of exhibited traits and behaviours. â€Å"Personality is the culmination of experiences and genetic influences. † Personality is influenced by the personal life and where he is working. 4. 5 DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY Personality is the result of both heredity and environment and also the situation. Heredity Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at conception. Physical appearance, temperament, energy level and biological rhythms are the characteristics which are generally influenced by one's Parents' i. e. , One's Biological, Physiological and Inherent Psychological Make up.The Heredity approach feels that personality of an individual is the Molecular Structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes. Environment Culture plays an important role in the formation of personality, i. e. , early conditioning, the norms among the family, friends and social groups. With the socialisation process in the group, personalities are altered over time. Situation Though an individual personality is constant, it does change depending on the situation. Different demands in different s ituations call forth different aspect of one's personality.The relationship of these three factors affects the formation and development of Personality. Psychological inheritance is entirely an internal contribution. Group and culture are the early environmental factors that form later behaviour. Family and social setting during the early stages of education are the important factors which influences the initial formation of personality. Whatever the child learns here lasts for life time. Later in life, it is the Peer groups or Primary affiliations at work, social activities which shape the Personality. 0 4. 6 TYPE AND TRAIT APPROACHES TO PERSONALITY Indian Environment: The Changing Scenario The traditional viewed individuals as Shy, Lazy, Melancholy, Ambitious, Aggressive. These were called a Traits. Groups of these traits were then aggregated to Personality types. Trait Approach Cattel (1973) identified 16 source traits/Primary Traits. These traits were found to be generally stead y and constant sources of behaviour. But there was found to be no scientific relevance.Figure 1: Sixteen Source Traits 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) Reserved – Outgoing Less intelligent – More intelligent Affected by feelings – Emotionally stable Submissive – Dominant Serious – Happy go Lucky Expedient – Conscientious Timid – Venturesome Tough minded – Sensitive Trusting – Suspicious Practical – Imaginative Forthright – Shrewd Self-Assured – Apprehensive Conservative – Experimenting Group-dependent – Self-sufficient Uncontrolled – Controlled Relaxed – Tense In the type approach, several behaviours are seen as cluster characterising individuals with high degree of stability.Locus of control: People are assumed to be of two types: `Internals' and `Externals'. Internals are people who believe that much of what happens to them is controlled by their de stiny. Externals believe that much of what happens to them is controlled by outside forces. Machiavellianism: High Machs tend to take control, especially in loosely structured situations; Low Machs respond well to structured situations. High Machs tend to be more logical, rational and Pragmatic. They are more skilled in influencing and coalition building. Type ‘A’ or Type ‘B’People who are Hard-driving, impatient, aggressive, and super competitive are termed as Type `A' Personality. Those who are easy-going, sociable, laid-back and non-competitive are termed as Type `B' Personality. Type A people tend to be very productive and work very hard. They are workaholics. The negative side of them is that they are impatient, not good team players, more irritable, have poor judgement. Type B people do better on complex tasks involving judgement, accuracy rather than speed and team work. 11 Social Processes and Issues 4. 7 THEORIES OF PERSONALITYCarl Jung identified three basic assumptions in theory, 1) Personalities are developmental in that they are influenced by past and hopes for the future. 2) All people have the potential for growth and change. 3) Personality is the totality of a person's interacting sub-systems. Emotional Orientations Jung feels that the two basic Orientations of People are extroversion and introversion. Introverts are primarily oriented to the subjective world. They look inward at themselves, avoid ‘social contacts and initiating interaction with others, withdrawn, quiet and enjoy solitude.Extroverts are friendly, enjoy interaction with people, are generally aggressive and express their feelings and ideas openly. Managers should gain an understanding of themselves and learn how understanding others can make them better managers. Validity results showed that introvert/extrovert is really applicable to only the rare extremes. Most individuals tend to be ambiverts, that is, they are in between introversion and extrov ersion. Figure 2: Extroverts versus Introverts: Characteristics of Each Extroverts Introverts Likes variety and action. Tend to work faster, dislike complicated procedure.Are often good at greeting people. Are often impatient with slow jobs. Are interested in results of their job, getting it done and in how other people do it. Often do not, mind interruption of answering the telephone. Often act quickly, sometimes without thinking. Like to have people around. Usually communicate freely. Like quiet for concentration Tend to be careful with details, dislike sweeping statements. Have trouble in remembering names and faces. Tend not to mind working on one project for a long time uninterruptedly. Are interested in the idea behind their job.Dislike telephone intrusions and interruptions. Like to think a lot before they act, sometimes without acting. Work contentedly alone. Have some problems in communicating. Problem-solving Styles Jung identified two basic steps in problem solving: colle cting information and making decision. Collecting data occurs in a continuum from sensing to intuition. In terms of decision-making, it ranges from `thinking' to `feeling' types. Sensing-type: The person approaches the problem in a step by step organised way. The person works steadily and patiently with details.Intuitive type: One who does not show a lot of emotion, who can put things in a logical order and who can be firm and fair. The feeling type is very aware of other people, dislikes telling people unpleasant things and prefers harmony among people. 12 The interaction of these two aspects of problem solving results in four problemsolving types. 1) The sensing-feeling person likes to collect data in an orderly way and make decisions that take into account the needs of people. This person is very concerned with high-quality decisions that people will accept and implement. ) The intuitive-feeling person is equally concerned with the people side of decisions but the focus is on new ideas which are often broad in scope and lacking in details. 3) Sensing-thinkers emphasise details and quality of a decision. They are not as concerned with the people aspect of an organisation as with a technically sound decision. 4) Intuitive-thinking likes to tackle new and innovative problems, but make decisions primarily on technical terms. They tend to be good planners, but not so good at implementing. There is always a combination of these types in a person.General attitudes: The last personality sub-system Jung identified was general attitude work, namely judging and perceptive. Judging types like to follow a plan, Figure 3: Sensing Types versus Intuitive types: Characteristics of Each Sensing Types Dislike new problems unless there are standard ways to solve them. Like an established way of doing things. Enjoy using skills already learned more than learning new ones. Work more steadily, with realistic idea of how long it will take. Usually reach a conclusion step by step. Are patient with routine details. Are impatient when the details get complicated.Are not often inspired, and rarely trust the inspiration when they are. Seldom makes errors of fact. Tend to be good at precise work. Intuitive Types Like solving new problems. Dislike doing same thing repeatedly. Enjoy learning a new skill more than using it. Work in bursts of energy powered by enthusiasm, with slack periods in between. Reach conclusion quickly. Are impatient with routine details. Are patient with complicated situations. Follow their inspirations, good or had. Frequently makes errors of fact. Dislike taking time for decision. Indian Environment: The Changing ScenarioFigure 4: Thinking Types versus Feeling Types: Characteristics of Each Thinking Types Do not show emotion readily and are often uncomfortable dealing with people's feelings. May hurt people's feelings without knowing it. Like analysis and putting things into logical order; can get along without harmony. Tend to decide imper sonally, sometimes paying insufficient attention to people's wishes. Need to be treated fairly. Are able to reprimand people or fire them when necessary. Are more analytically oriented; respond easily to people’s thoughts. Tend to be firm minded.Feeling Types Tend to be very aware or other people and their feelings. Enjoy pleasing people, even in unimportant things. Like harmony. Efficiently may be badly disturbed by office feuds. Often let decisions be influenced by their own or other people's personal likes and wishes. Need occasional praise. Dislike telling people unpleasant things. Are more people-oriented; respond easily to people's values. Tend to be sympathetic. 13 Social Processes and Issues Figure 5: Judging Types versus Perceptive Types: Characteristics of Each Judging Types Work best when they can plan their work and follow the plan.Like to get things settled and finished. May decide things too quickly. May dislike to interrupt the project they are on for a more ur gent one. May not notice knew things that need to be done. Want only essentials needed to begin their work. Tend to be satisfied once they reach a judgement on a thing, situation, or person. Perceptive Types Adapt well to changes. Do not mind leaving things open for alterations. May have trouble making decisions . May start too many projects and have difficulty finishing them. May postpone unpleasant things. Want to know all about a new job.Tend to be curious and welcome new information on a thing, situation, or person. like to make decisions, and want only essentials for their work. On the other hand, perceptive types adapt well to change, want to know all about a job and may get overcommitted. Development of Personality: Erikson's eight life stages Erikson identified eight stages of life that characterise the unending development of a person. He characterised each stage by a particular conflict that needs to be resolved successfully before a person can move to the next stage. Howe ver, These eight stages are not totally separate, and the crises are never fully resolved.Movement between stages is developmental. Movement can even involve regression to earlier stages when traumatic events occur. Stage One, Infancy: During the first year of life a person resolves the basic crisis of trust vs. mistrust. An infant who is cared for in a loving and affectionate way learns to trust other people. Lack of love and affection results in mistrust. This stage makes a serious impact on a child that influences events for remaining life. Stage Two, early childhood: In the second and third years of life, a child begins to assert independence.If the child is allowed to control these aspects of life that the child is capable of controlling, sense of autonomy will develop. If the child encounters constant disapproval or inconsistent rule setting, a sense of self-doubt and shame is likely to develop. Stage Three, play age: The four and five year olds seek to discover just how much they can do. If a child is encouraged to experiment and to achieve reasonable goals, he or she will develop a sense of initiative. If a child is blocked 14 and made to feel incapable, he or she will develop a sense of `guilt and lack of selfconfidence'.Stage Four, school age: From ages 6 to 12, a child learns many new skills and develops social abilities. If a child experiences real progress at a rate compatible with his or abilities, the child will develop a sense of industry. The reverse situation results in a sense of inferiority. Stage Five, adolescence: The crisis of the teenage years is gain a sense of identity rather than to become confused about who you are. While undergoing rapid biological changes, the teenager is also trying to establish himself or herself as socially separate from parents.The autonomy, initiative, and industry developed in earlier stages are very important in helping the teenager successfully resolve this crisis and prepare for adulthood. Stage Six, youn g adulthood: The young adult (20's and 30's) faces the crisis of intimacy versus isolation. The sense of identity developed during the teenage years allows the young adult to begin developing deep and lasting relationships. Stage Seven, adulthood: During their 40's and 50's adults face the crisis of generativity versus self-absorption.Self-absorbed persons never develop an ability to look beyond themselves. They may become absorbed in career advancements and maintenance; and they may never learn to have concern for future generations, the welfare of organisations to which they belong or the welfare of society as a whole. Generative people see the world as much bigger than themselves. Productivity in work or child rearing or societal advancement become important to them. Through innovation and creativity, they begin to exert influence that benefits their organisation.Stage Eight, later life: The adult of integrity has gained a sense of wisdom and prospective that can truly help guide future generations. Sheldon: He labeled three body builds and certain Personality Characteristics they reflected. The three body types are: 1) Endomorph – Fleshy and inclined towards fatness. 2) Mesomorph – Athletic and inclined to be muscular 3) Ectomorph – Thin and inclined to' be fine-boned and fragile. The personality characteristics reflected are: Endomorph: Friendly, oriented towards people, seek others when troubled, slow to react, loves to eat.Mesomorph: Seeks physical adventure, needs and enjoys exercise, restless, aggressive, likes risk and chance, competitive. Ectomorph: Likes privacy, socially inhibited, quick to react and hypersensitive to pain. Indian Environment: The Changing Scenario Passages Theory Sheehy (1976) with her extensive research concluded that adults progress through five crises: 1) Pulling up Roots: This period occurs between the ages of eighteen and twenty two, when individuals exit from home and incur physical, financial, and emot ional separation from parents.They cover their fears and uncertainty with acts of defiance and mimicked confidence. 2) The Trying Twenties: This period is a time of opportunity, but also includes the fear that choices are irrevocable. Two forces push upon us — one is to build a firm, safe structure for the future by making strong commitments and the other is to explore and experiment and keep flexible as to commitments. 15 Social Processes and Issues 3) The Catch – Thirties: Approaching the age thirty is a time in which life commitments are made, broken or renewed.It may mean setting towards a new phase or calming down of idealistic dreams to realistic goals. Commitments are changed or they are deepened. There is change, turmoil, and often an urge to be out of the routine. The Deadline Decade: The ten years between the age of thirty-five and fortyfive represent a crossroad. This period is characterised by a re-examination of one's purposes and how the resources will be spent from now on. Renewal or Resignation: The mid forties bring a period of stability.The individual who can find a purpose and direction upon which to continue _ building his or her life, the mid forties may well be the best years. 4) 5) These stages are related to working places. It is expected that all employees face crises during their careers – Just as young people pass through identity crises, during their teenage years, adults too go through stages – insecurity, opportunities presented, opportunities forgone and lost, and either the acceptance of new challenges or resignation.These crises create the opportunity for an employee to alter his or her goals, commitments, and loyalties to the organisation. When employees reach their forties, they re-examine their goals and make important adjustments in their lives. Their personalities may undergo significant changes resulting in behavioural patterns quite different from his or her environment. Maturation Theory: Chr is Argyris has postulated a maturation theory of personality development that proposes that all healthy people seek situations that offer autonomy, ise interests, to be treated equally, and the opportunity to exhibit their ability to deal with complexity. Healthy individuals tend to move from immaturity to maturity: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) From being passive to engaging in increasing activity. From dependence on others to independence. From having few ways to behave to possess many alternatives. From having shallow interests to developing deeper interests. From short time perspective to having a longer time perspective. From being in a subordinate position to viewing oneself as equal or superior. From lack of awareness of oneself to awareness of oneself,According to Argyris, healthy people will show the behaviours of maturity while unhealthy people tend to demonstrate childlike immature behaviours. Further, Argyris argues that most organisations tend to their employees like children, m aking them dependent. The manager who understands personality development is better able to predict these crises and recognise them as natural transitions that adults encounter. Neither trait nor type approach, or theories of personality presented help in predicting behaviour of an individual. The reason is, they ignore situational contexts. 4. 8 IMPORTANCE OF PERSONALITY 16Understanding of personality is very important because by determining what characteristics will make for effective job performance, it can aid in personnel selections; by increasing understanding of how personality and job characteristics interact it can result in better hiring, transfer and promotion decisions, and by providing insights into personality development it can help to anticipate, recognise and prevent the operationalising of costly defenses by organisational members. There are certain procedures by which personalities can be predicted: 1) 2) 3) 4) `Rating Scales' from peers or friends help in predict ing the ehaviour. `Experimental procedures' which help in the assessment of some characteristics of person. With the help of `Questionnaire' one can assess behaviour of the other, provided the answers are genuine. Projective Tests like Thematic Appreciation Test, Rorschach's Ink-Blot test help in predicting the personality of an individual. Indian Environment: The Changing Scenario These measures help in effectiveness of the organisation. 4. 9 ATTITUDES Attitudes are a way of responding either favourably or unfavourably to objects, persons, concepts etc. They are evaluative statements.They reflect how one feels about something. Attitudes are related to behaviour. It is an unidimensional variable, i. e. , positive or negative. They are hypothetical constructs. It is something inside a person. It may be observed but the attitude itself cannot. Attitudes in a person could be observed in three ways: 1) Direct experience with the person or situation. 2) Association with other similar per sons or situations. 3) Learning from others their association with the person or situation. `Direct experience' is the concrete experience stage of learning.Association is similar to abstract conceptualisation and generalisation. Learning from others is like reflection and observation. Attitudes evolve out of perception and learning process. One is not born with attitudes but acquires them through life experiences. But certain basic attitude of trust or mistrust occurs during the infancy. If a child's basic needs are met in a loving manner, the child will develop a sense of trust otherwise a sense of mistrust develops. The child also develops a sense of autonomy or shame and doubt. All these affects one's behaviour.And this linkage to behaviour is what managers are concerned with; and they also tend to understand the ways in which behaviour affects attitudes. 4. 10 ATTITUDES AND ORGANISATION In organisations, attitudes are important because they affect the job behaviour. These job r elated attitudes top positive or negative evaluations that employees hold about aspects of their work environment. There are three primary attitudes; job satisfaction, job involvement, and organisational commitment. Job satisfaction refers to an individual's general attitude towards his or her job, which is either positive or negative, i. . , satisfied or dissatisfied. Job involvement measures the degree to which a person identifies with his job, actively participates in it and considers his performance important to his self-worth. Organisational commitment is an orientation in terms of loyalty, identity and involvement in the organisation. These attitudes are measured so that behaviours like productivity, absenteeism and turnover can be predicted. Managers need not be interested only in understanding the attitudes of the people, but also in changing them. Since attitudes are learned they can be changed.Persuasive communications are used to change attitudes. But attitudes are slow t o change. Because they are based on deep-seated beliefs and values. I 7 17 Social Processes and Issues 4. 11 VALUES Values are encompassing concepts. American Management Association indicated that values are at the core of personality, and that they are ,powerful, though silent force affecting behaviour. Values are so embedded that it can be inferred from people's behaviour and their expressed attitudes. But values are a strong force in people.What may `appear' to be strange behaviour in an employee can make sense if managers understand the values underlying that behaviour. Rokeach (1973) â€Å"values represent basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. † Rokeach divided values into two broad categories: `Terminal values† relate to ends to be achieved e. g. comfortable life, family security, self-respect and sense of accomplishment. `Instrumental values' relate to means for achieving desired ends, e. g. mbition, courage, honesty and imagination. Terminal values reflect what a person is ultimately striving to achieve, whereas instrumental values reflect how the person get there. Values are so embedded that it can be inferred from people's behaviour and their perception, personality and motivation. They generally influence behaviour. They are relatively stable and enduring. This is because, the way in which they are originally learned. Allport (1951) identified six types of values. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Theoretical – Places high importance on the discovery of truth through critical and rational approach.Economic – Emphasises to be useful and practical. Aesthetic – Places the highest value on form and harmony. Social – The highest value is given to the love of people. Political – Places emphasis on acquisition of power and influence. Religious – Concerned with the unity of ex perience and understanding of the cosmos as a whole. People in different occupations place different importance on the six value types. The knowledge that people have different types of values has led a few of the more progressively managed organisations to initiate efforts to improve the values – job fit in order to enhance employee performance and satisfaction.Texas Instruments for instance, has developed a programme to diagnose different value types and to match properly these types with appropriate work environments within their company. Some individuals, for example, are classified as â€Å"tribalistic† – people who want strong, directive leadership from their bosses; some are â€Å"egocentric† desiring individual responsibilities and wanting to work as lovers in an entrepreneurial style; some are â€Å"sociocentric† seeking primarily the social relationship that job provides, and some are â€Å"existential†, seeking full expression of growth and self-fulfilment needs through their work, much as an artist does.Charles Hughes, director of personnel and organisation development at Texas Instruments, believes the variety of work that needs to be done, in his organisation is great enough to accommodate these different types work personalities in such a manner that an individual and organisational goals are fused. 18 4. 12 SOCIALISATION'S INFLUENCE ON PERSONALITY VALUES AND ATTITUDES Indian Environment: The Changing Scenario Organisations play a major factor in people's lives and it has a significant impact on people's personality, values and attitudes.Socialisation is the process by which an individual adapts himself to the working environment and gains loyalty and commitment to an organisation. `Through this process, a person learns the goals of the organisation, the means to achieve those goals, an employee's responsibilities and accepted ways of behaving in the organisation. In addition, the person learns the organ isation's attitudes and values. As the person becomes socialised in the organisation, there is also a tendency to adapt to the attitudes and values of the organisation.Thus, the organisation influences the personality, values and attitudes of an individual. Stages of Socialisation 1) Pre-arrival stage: Individuals develop preconceived notions about an organisation based on previous education, work experiences and contacts with organisation. 2) Encounter with the Organisation: A person's initial orientation, training and experiences with other employees who exhibit the accepted attitudes in the organisation all influence and change the person. ) Change of the Person and Acquisition of the new attitudes and values: When a person works in a company, he or she gradually learns what is expected and begins to develop a new personality that is consistent with the organisation depending, the person works for sometime in the same organization. Socialisation process is not limited to the entr y point in an organisation. Rather, it is a continuous process throughout person's career path. Socialisation occurs every time employee makes a move in an organisation.As people move vertically up the organisation's hierarchy, they encounter different norms, values and attitudes. At the entry stage, employees must assimilate these new factors if they are to be successful, and the potential is there for an alteration of their personality. Economic conditions, competitions and technological advances can cause an organisation to change its basic orientation: The resulting adaptation will bring new forces to bear on each organisation member – forces which may alter personalities 4. 13 SCHEIN SOCIALISATION MODELSchein identified three ways in which individuals respond to the socialisation forces of the organisation and thus exert influence on their own personalities. 1) Rebellion: The new employee could attempt to fight the organisation. The result might be dismissal, or change i n the organisation, or change in the person (regardless of whether the individual wins or losses). 2) Creative Individualism: Where an employee accepts the organisation's values and attitudes which are important and rejects the others. The employee uses a combination of personal and organisational values in relation to the organisation. ) Conform: A person could simply conform to the organisational forces and exert very little influence on the organisation. 19 Social Processes and Issues Thus socialisation is a process that exerts influence toward changing personality. But previous socialisation, learning and attitude formation create forces that operate to maintain personality as a consistent type. Perceptual process filters socialisation forces in an attempt to maintain consistency between people's surroundings and their self-concept and it depends on strength ‘of these forces.Personality, Attitude and Values continue to develop and evolve over a time. To understand the proc ess of socialisation is necessary for a manager because it relates directly to work organisation. 4. 14 SUMMARY From this Unit, it was learnt that understanding human behaviour is essential for an effective manager, as it facilitates to achieve organisational goals better. The reasons for individual differences and approaches of understanding human behaviour are explained. It was understood from this unit, that attitudes are opinions about things.Values represent deep-seated standards by which people evaluate their world. The past plays an important role in the development of attitudes and values. Personality is the result of person's experiences and genetic influences. Approaches, theories and determinants of personality were explained. Finally, the process of socialisation in an organisation that alters one's personality, values and attitudes was discussed. 4. 15 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS Why should organisations give importance in understanding human behav iour? What is individual difference?What are the factors which affect individual differences? Describe various models in understanding human behaviour. Define value. Define attitudes. How are they similar? Different? What is the source of values and attitudes? Values have been described as the foundation of individual behaviour. On what basis do you think such a statement was made? Explain why personality is developmental in nature, what are the primary factors that influence the evolution of personality? Why are the first three stages of Erikson's model of personality so crucial to long-term ersonality development? How do the crises of these three stages relate to the crises of the remaining stages? Describe locus of control, â€Å"Machiavillianism† and type A or B as types of personality. 9) 10) Describe the differences between type and trait approaches. . 11) 12) Describe the sub-systems of Jung's Personality Theory. Also explain the four dimensions of the theory. Describe the socialisation processes and explain how it influences personality, attitudes and values. 20 4. 16 FURTHER READINGS Indian Environment: The Changing ScenarioB. Narayan and Bharati Sharma, 1993; â€Å"Behavioural Science in Management† Omsons Publications, New Delhi. Harlow/Hamke, 1975; Behaviour in Organisations Text, Readings and Cases, Little, Brown and Company. Randolph, Black Bown, 1989; Managing Organisational Behaviour, Richard Irwin, Inc. Stephen P. Robbins, 1985; Organisational Behaviour, Concepts, Controversies and Applications, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi. Terrence R. Mitchell, 1982; `People in Organisations', McGraw-Hill International Book Company. Terrence R.Mitchell, 1983; People in Organisations, An Introduction to Organisational Behaviour, McGraw-Hill International Book Company. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, Cal. , 1962) is a very popular instrument for Jungian types. Please Understand Me b y David Keirsey (Prometheus Nemesis Book, Del, Mar, Cal, USA, 1978) is a good simple introduction to Jungian types based on Keirsey Temperament Sortex (70 item pair comparison questionnaire). Usha Haley and S. A. Stumpf in â€Å"Cognitive trails in Strategic Decision Making† (Journal of Management Studies, 1989, 26, 77-497) have discussed what Heuristics the four Jungian types use to gather data, and to generate and evaluate alternatives. Also the four types use different cognitive trails, and can consequently fall prey to biases that lurk in these trails. The Heuristics of biases of the four personality are: Types STs NTs SFs NFs Heuristics Anachrony Perseverance Availability Vividness Biases Functional fixedness and regularity and structure. Positivity and representativeness. Social-desirability and fundamental attribution Reasoning-by-analogy and illusory-correlation. 21